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File 151765236078.jpg - (512.99KB , 1539x923 , antique cannon UK Maxim 1895 _303 extra-light 27_5.jpg )
106913 No. 106913 ID: 7fecba
Extra-Light Maxim (1895)

One of the relatively few successful competitors to the Maxim in the early days of the heavy machine gun was the Col Model 1895 (aka, the Potato Digger). When it was adopted by the US in 1895, one of the elements in its favor was its light weight – just 35 pounds (not including mount). The Colt was an air cooled gun, which is a large part of how it was able to be so much lighter than the Maxim. This, predictably, did not sit well with Hiram Maxim, and he proceeded to make an extra-light version of the Maxim.
https://www.forgottenweapons.com/extra-light-maxim-1895/
Expand all images
>> No. 106914 ID: 7fecba
File 151765244062.jpg - (475.16KB , 1875x767 , antique cannon UK Maxim 1895 _303 extra-light 27_5.jpg )
106914
This version weighed in at just 27.5 pounds (12.5kg) of gun, and 44.5 pounds (20.2kg) complete with its tripod mount. That was quite impressively light, and it impressed the US trials board. However, this weight reduction was accomplished in large part be eliminating the cooling water and reducing the diameter of the barrel jacket (a jacket was still required to provide a bearing surface at the end of the barrel for the recoil action). Four cooling holes were cut in the bottom of the jacket, but these were wildly insufficient to allow proper cooling of the barrel, and as a result he gun overheated quickly. Maxim himself suggested that firing more than 400 rounds continuously would be unsafe. Why a much more heavily perforated jacket was not tried (as would be used 20 years later for the aircraft Maxims used by several nations) is not clear – it may simply have not been an idea that was considered in time.
>> No. 106915 ID: 7fecba
File 15176524718.jpg - (454.87KB , 1821x689 , antique cannon UK Maxim 1895 _303 extra-light 27_5.jpg )
106915
A quick-change barrel would have helped to ameliorate the gun’s cooling liability, but this was not really possible with the general Maxim action. As a result, the Extra-Light Maxim failed to attract any significant sales, with handfuls of examples being sold here and there for evaluation and little more (for example, the company’s attempt to market a two-man, two-gun tricycle failed to gain any buyers). It did serve to keep Maxim’s name in the minds of the US military, though, and this would finally pay dividends when the US adopted a more standard Maxim gun in 1904.

Mechanically, the Extra Light was not the dead end that its commercial failure would suggest. It incorporated several new ideas, most notably a fully internal mainspring. Rather than having the mainspring (fusee) attached to the outside of the receiver, in this model it was internal. This saved space and weight (no mainspring cover need, for example), but at the cost of not being readily adjustable. That adjustability was important to the Maxim’s reliability, and the internal spring would not see further use. The other new feature of the Extra Light would become standard for all Maxim guns, however.
>> No. 106916 ID: 7fecba
File 15176525064.jpg - (671.71KB , 1754x1094 , antique cannon UK Maxim 1895 _303 extra-light 27_5.jpg )
106916
This second new feature was the use of an elegantly curved crank handle in conjunction with a roller cam. This made the transition from rearward recoiling motion to rotational unlocking motion much smoother than in the earlier models (in which two flat surfaces slammed together) and reduced the potential for parts breakage. This improvement (along with 12 others) was patented by Maxim in 1894 British patent #16,260.
>> No. 106917 ID: 7fecba
File 151765269536.jpg - (758.23KB , 2585x1354 , antique cannon UK Maxim 1895 _303 extra-light 27_5.jpg )
106917
>> No. 106918 ID: 7fecba
File 15176528206.jpg - (1.29MB , 1763x1272 , antique cannon UK Maxim 1895 _303 extra-light two-.jpg )
106918
Here's the two-man, two-gun tricycle mount for the 1895 extra-light Maxims.
Ultimately they weren’t light enough to justify the much more limited rate of fire allowed by the non-ventilated shroud and lack of water jacket. http://www.forgottenweapons.com/the-best-pedal-powered-vehicle-ever/
>> No. 106919 ID: 7fecba
File 151765296554.jpg - (1.29MB , 1828x1118 , antique cannon UK Maxim 1895 _303 extra-light two-.jpg )
106919
http://www.operatorchan.org/k/res/104133.html#104187
>> No. 106932 ID: 7fecba
File 151775054019.jpg - (110.43KB , 800x791 , US WW1 Colt-Browning M1895 'Potato Digger.jpg )
106932
Here's the Maxim's more mobile competitor, the 16 kg (35.3 lb) US Colt-Browning M1895 machine gun with her creator, John Moses Browning. http://www.operatorchan.org/k/res/104133.html#104735

The Colt–Browning M1895, nicknamed "potato digger" because of its unusual operating mechanism, is an air-cooled, belt-fed, gas-operated machine gun that fires from a closed bolt with a cyclic rate of 450 rounds per minute. Based on a John Browning and Matthew S. Browning design dating to 1889, it was the first successful gas-operated machine gun to enter service. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M1895_Colt%E2%80%93Browning_machine_gun
>> No. 106933 ID: 7fecba
File 151775121114.jpg - (107.70KB , 1772x530 , US WW1 Colt-Browning M1895 unique gas actuated lev.jpg )
106933
John Browning had previously worked on lever-action rifles for Winchester and he took this design to cycle the bolt on a machine-gun using a lever moved to the barrel that is pressed down, not by the operator's hand, but cartridge gasses ejected from a port drilled into the barrel. Springs automatically return the bolt and lever to their positions and feed ammo into the breech.

- US Colt-Browning M1895 unique gas actuated lever operating mechanism showing the lever (P) in the forward (top) and rear (bottom) positions.
>> No. 106934 ID: 7fecba
File 151775130828.jpg - (1.55MB , 3335x2353 , US WW1 Colt M1895 on 1897 Columbia Model 40 bicycl.jpg )
106934
US Colt M1895 on 1897 Columbia Model 40 bicycle.
>> No. 106935 ID: 7fecba
File 151775140768.jpg - (64.15KB , 622x433 , US WW1 Colt-Browning M1895 'Potato Digger.jpg )
106935
US Colt-Browning M1895 'Potato Digger' MG on an Indian police motorcycle.
>> No. 106936 ID: 7fecba
File 151775153467.jpg - (494.88KB , 1863x1428 , US WW1 Colt M1895 potato digger on Davidson-Duryea.jpg )
106936
US Colt M1895 potato digger on a Davidson-Duryea 1899 automobile.
>> No. 106937 ID: 7fecba
File 151775157811.jpg - (445.26KB , 1800x1350 , US WW1 Colt M1895 potato digger on Davidson-Duryea.jpg )
106937
>> No. 106938 ID: 7fecba
File 151775170016.jpg - (113.77KB , 800x624 , US WW1 Colt-Browning M1895 JB's first product.jpg )
106938
US Colt-Browning M1895, John Browning's first production belt-fed machine-gun, on a 1905 Franklin Cross.
>> No. 106939 ID: 7fecba
File 151775230381.jpg - (107.08KB , 1200x952 , US WW1 Colt-Browning M1895 'Potato Digger.jpg )
106939
And here's an M1895 Colt-Browning 'Potato Digger' on a Sri Lankan elephant in 1914.
The M1895 saw action in the Spanish–American War, Second Boer War, Russian Civil War, and others, but only limited use in World War I where the M1895/14 Colt–Browning saw use in France by some Canadian infantry formations. Deploying to France in 1915, the 21st Canadian Light Infantry Battalion used .303-caliber M1895/14 machine-guns in combat. These guns saw significant combat but were soon replaced by Vickers machine-guns. They were not taken out of combat however, but were instead given to equip formations of the Belgian Exile Army. The French also tested the Colt and some were used in early aircraft for testing. Additional Colt guns were sent to the Russians, who used them extensively.
>> No. 106940 ID: 7fecba
File 151775280460.jpg - (694.58KB , 5532x4632 , US WW1 Colt M1895 'Potato Digger' 1.jpg )
106940
>> No. 106941 ID: 7fecba
File 151775285256.jpg - (3.40MB , 6063x3508 , US WW1 Colt M1895 'Potato Digger' 2.jpg )
106941
>> No. 106942 ID: 7fecba
File 151775288730.jpg - (2.52MB , 7000x4672 , US WW1 Colt M1895 'Potato Digger' 3.jpg )
106942
>> No. 106943 ID: 7fecba
File 151775290537.jpg - (814.21KB , 3973x3207 , US WW1 Colt M1895 'Potato Digger' 4.jpg )
106943
>> No. 106944 ID: 7fecba
File 151775292862.jpg - (1.30MB , 5858x2499 , US WW1 Colt M1895 'Potato Digger' 5.jpg )
106944
>> No. 106945 ID: 7fecba
File 151775294320.jpg - (607.83KB , 5472x4159 , US WW1 Colt M1895 'Potato Digger' 6.jpg )
106945
>> No. 106946 ID: 7fecba
File 151775295344.jpg - (145.45KB , 2800x2445 , US WW1 Colt M1895-1914 first used in the South Afr.jpg )
106946
>> No. 106947 ID: 7fecba
File 151775296259.jpg - (155.17KB , 1144x604 , US WW1 Colt-Browning M1895 machine gun.jpg )
106947
>> No. 106948 ID: 7fecba
File 151775297071.jpg - (84.16KB , 1224x762 , US WW1 Colt-Browning M1895 Marlin Model 1917 varia.jpg )
106948
>> No. 106949 ID: 7fecba
File 151775302853.jpg - (111.96KB , 1057x621 , US WW1 Colt-Browning M1895 'Potato Digger.jpg )
106949
>> No. 106950 ID: 7fecba
File 151775303516.jpg - (73.24KB , 1126x707 , US WW1 Colt-Browning M1895-1914 'Potato Digge.jpg )
106950
>> No. 106951 ID: 7fecba
File 151775304364.jpg - (84.65KB , 1122x776 , US WW1 Colt-Browning M1895-1914 'Potato Digge.jpg )
106951
>> No. 106952 ID: 7fecba
File 151775363625.jpg - (2.53MB , 2000x1500 , antique cannon UK Maxim, Colt-Browning M1895, MG 0.jpg )
106952
And here's a Maxim Gun along with a Colt-Browning M1895, MG 08, Hotchkiss Mle 14, and Schwarzlose MG.
>> No. 106970 ID: 658e45
File 151793603527.jpg - (616.79KB , 928x693 , Heavy Maxims.jpg )
106970
Not to be confused with the Extra-Heavy Maxim.
>> No. 106971 ID: 7fecba
File 151794526172.jpg - (92.62KB , 799x616 , German WW1 Maxim MG-18 TuF Tank und Flieger 13mm 1.jpg )
106971
"At the end of the First World War Germany was developing a large version of the Maxim, the MG T.u.F., for Tank und Flieger. This fired a powerful 13x92SR cartridge, essentially a scaled-up rifle cartridge firing a bullet four times as heavy, which was also used in the huge Mauser M1918 anti-tank rifle. The name, meaning "tank and aircraft", described the intended targets; suggestions that it might also have been intended for fitting to aircraft being a claim made by the British after the war as an excuse to try to seize one of the weapons (military aircraft and their weapons being subject to confiscation by the Commission of Control under the terms of the Versailles Treaty). It was too late to see action, only 24 of the 4,200 ordered being completed (by the Maschinen-Fabrik Augsberg-Nurnberg) but it can be regarded as the ancestor of all of the heavy machine guns which followed."

I discovered the very letter in the PRO files which put forward the British arguments for seizing a TuF to the Allied Control Commission. Essentially they argued that because the gun included 'aircraft' in its title, and could conceivably have been mounted on a plane, it should be considered as 'aircraft armament' and eligible for confiscation. There is no response from the ACC in the file, but the fact that no TuF exists in the UK should be taken as answer enough! Nice try, chaps...In fact, all of the TuFs completed seem to have been water-cooled and on wheeled carriages, and there is no information that I am aware of which would indicate any interest in installing this gun in a plane.

There was one intended aircraft gun in this calibre, however - another extract, from the section on the Gast twin-barrel gun:

"A larger version, the 13 mm Gast-Flieger MG used the same 13x92SR ammunition as the T.u.F. and featured air-cooled barrels and two curved box magazines above the action, but this was only at the early experimental stage." http://www.theaerodrome.com/forum/showthread.php?t=13390
>> No. 106972 ID: 7fecba
File 151794564521.jpg - (548.63KB , 4664x3422 , bullets, German WW1 Mauser 13_2x92mmSR TuF Tank un.jpg )
106972
The Mauser 13.2mm TuF (German: Tank und Flieger; lit. "Tank and Aircraft", known also as 13.2×92mmSR), was a major step in the development of anti-tank cartridges, being the first cartridge designed for the sole purpose of destroying armored targets.

The cartridge was used in the Mauser 1918 T-Gewehr rifle. Its use was also planned in a new machine gun scheduled for deployment in 1919, the MG 18 TuF.

The 13.2 mm Tuf was designed to counter early British tanks which made their appearance during late World War I. Since a tank's path was difficult to determine prior to its deployment near the front, land mines were difficult to employ as a deterrent to their forward passage. Light artillery pieces pressed into service as anti-tank guns were very effective, but cumbersome and difficult to bring into action quickly enough. Thus, another means of combating these early armored vehicles needed to be found. Since early plate armor was relatively thin due to the need to reduce vehicle weight for low powered drive trains to propel the unit (and since tanks were mainly designed to protect from defensive machine gun fire), large bore rifles could be used to harass and decimate tank crews. Depending on the thickness of the armor, a 13.2mm bullet penetrating the first armor plate would lose much of its energy and be unable to penetrate the vehicle's rear, meaning it would ricochet around the interior, causing more damage.[citation needed]

The development of the .50 BMG round is sometimes confused with the German 13.2 mm TuF, which was developed by Germany for an anti-tank rifle to combat British tanks during World War I. However, the development of the U.S. .50 caliber round was started before this later German project was completed or even known to the Allied countries.[citation needed] When word of the German anti-tank round spread, there was some debate as to whether it should be copied and used as a base for the new machine gun cartridge. However, after some analysis the German ammunition was ruled out, both because performance was inferior to the .50 BMG (which was simply an enlarged .30-06 Springfield round), and because it was a semi-rimmed cartridge, making it sub-optimal for an automatic weapon. The round's dimensions and ballistic traits are totally different. Instead, the M2HB Browning with its .50 caliber armor-piercing cartridges went on to function as an anti-aircraft and anti-vehicular machine gun, with a capability of completely perforating 0.875" (22.2 mm) of face-hardened armor steel plate at 100 yards (91 m), and 0.75" (19 mm) at 547 yards (500 m), versus 20mm at 100m and 15mm at 300m for the 13,2mm TuF when fired from the Tank Abwehr Gewehr M1918. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/13.2mm_TuF
>> No. 106973 ID: 7fecba
File 151794621263.jpg - (194.88KB , 1238x1024 , antique cannon US Maxim-Nordenfelt 37mm 1-pounder .jpg )
106973
And the pom-pom guns (aka quick-firing or QF by the Brits) were scaled up Maxims, designed for attacking small boats, submarines and torpedo boats around 1900, but later pressed into service to attack aircraft.
- US Maxim-Nordenfelt 37mm 1-pounder pom-pom M1898 on the USS Vixen.
http://www.operatorchan.org/k/res/104133.html#104147
>> No. 106974 ID: 7fecba
File 151794634670.jpg - (1.93MB , 3264x2448 , German WW1 37mm Maxim QF 1 pounder pom-pom used in.jpg )
106974
German WW1 37mm Maxim QF 1-pounder pom-pom gun used in Africa.
>> No. 106975 ID: 7fecba
File 151794654922.jpg - (3.25MB , 2512x2292 , German WW1 37mm Maxim QF 1 pounder Museum of Milit.jpg )
106975
German WW1 37mm Maxim QF 1-pounder at the Museum of Military History in Johannesburg.
I'd hate to be the trooper who had to polish all that brass.
>> No. 106976 ID: 7fecba
File 151794668138.jpg - (147.93KB , 1134x768 , German WW1 Maxim Flak M14, a version of the 37mm M.jpg )
106976
German WW1 Maxim Flak M14, a version of the 37mm Maxim-Nordenfelt gun.
>> No. 106977 ID: 7fecba
File 151794818129.jpg - (67.45KB , 639x1035 , antique cannon US Maxim light gun & mount Hira.jpg )
106977
Here's Hiram S. Maxim holding up his Maxim light gun and mount for prospective buyers.
>> No. 107000 ID: 7fecba
File 15185714377.jpg - (539.61KB , 1532x1600 , antique cannon US Maxim-Nordenfelt pom-pom deck gu.jpg )
107000
MAXIM NORDENFELT 37MM “POM-POM”, NAVAL DECK GUN (EXEMPT FROM NFA).

SN 2024. Cal. 37mm. 51″ bbl. This exquisitely and professionally restored orig “one pounder” Maxim Nordenfelt automatic cannon is one of only very few extent of the early model. When found these are normally badly deteriorated having been exposed to the elements for decades, often as part of municipal historical monuments. This extraordinary specimen has the correct color gray paint covering the sideplates with a massive brass feed block incorporating an attractive wooden roller. It sets on an orig correct albeit non-matching SN Naval cone mount with brass cradle; the entire display piece is on a custom made wheeled dolly, making it manageable to move around. Actuating arm, feed slide, pawls and pins not present in feed block, nor is bolt present in receiver. Orig mainspring is included but not installed as the tabbed ends are not serviceable. Trigger bar, hand grip, cover, charging handle and external levers present and appear serviceable. Impressive orig brass spring cover also present on left side. Elevation adjustment wheel non-functional, however, steel pins and adjustable shaft allow one to display this piece pointing any number of positions of a wide vertical arc. Traverses smoothly through 360 degrees. This impressive display piece is non-functional due to missing the parts mentioned above and it is important to note that although this model is an automatic cannon with a rifled bore diameter greater than 1/2″ it has been declared “exempt” from the provisions of the National Firearms Act (NFA). A copy of a BATF letter attesting to this fact for this model is provided. This model is of significant historical interest as it was originally manufactured in 1889 as part of a thirty gun initial production run (This class of Maxim started at #2001). http://jamesdjulia.com/item/3034-394/
>> No. 107001 ID: 7fecba
File 151857147120.jpg - (485.58KB , 1519x1600 , antique cannon US Maxim-Nordenfelt pom-pom deck gu.jpg )
107001
The first sale of gun #2024, with 5 others was made to the Minister of Marine, St Petersburg, Russia in March of 1895. All six guns were rejected due to defects and were returned to the factory and rebuilt. The top cover is marked with the issue/rebuild date of 1895. The company was reorganized in 1897 and conducted business as Vickers, Sons and Maxim (VSM), thus there are VSM inspection stamps on the gun. It is clear that the gun was sold, used, factory rebuilt and remarked before ourchase by the U.S. Navy in the first days of the Spanish American War. This gun was included in the first group of sixteen guns that the U.S. Navy purchased in March of 1898. This very gun, Navy Registery number 5, along with gun #2026 registry #6 were placed on the MANNING, a U.S. revenue Cutter, in April 1898, at Norfolk U.S. Navy Yard, according to the records of the U.S. Bureau of Ordnance. The Manning was taken into U.S. Naval service and participated in the bombardment of Spanish positions off Cabanas, Cuba on May 12th 1898. Eventually, Maxim 1 Pdr. Automatic Guns of this type were declared obsolete in the years 1911/1912 and were removed from ships during this period. PROVENANCE: RG 74 Records of the Bureau of Ordnance; Record of Armament of Naval Vessals, 1841-1903; Registry of Mounts for Secondary Battery, 1888-1913. Pgs 116 and 118-E131 CONDITION: Overall appearance and finish is absolutely outstanding as restored with the brass jacket exhibiting a pleasing patina with a commensurate finish on the brass feed block and other brass parts. Metal sideplate exhibit correct gray Navy paint. Orig brass spring housing simply outstanding. Trigger bar shows evidence of significant old pitting but is completely serviceable. Bore is moderately pitted but retains significant rifling. The “one pounder”, 1.457″ cartridge coupled with its manageable 250-300 rounds per minute rate of fire was extremely effective and could perforate a 1″ iron plate at 100 yards. Should a person be able to locate or fabricate the remaining parts, with the appropriate expertise, this gun could likely be restored to an operating condition. This cataloger is not aware of any source of orig solid steel projectile ammunition nor of a belt which would accommodate it, however, this specimen in this condition provides a unique opportunity for the advanced U.S. Military and Navy ordnance collector to acquire one of the most impressive and attractive pieces of Navy ordnance ever to come to public auction. The fact that records indicate it first went to Russia, and then later was in U.S. Naval Service during the Spanish American War make this a gun of noteworthy interest. 50927-1 JWK80 (150,000-250,000) – Lot 3034
>> No. 107002 ID: 7fecba
  Maxim Pom-Pom 37mm Machine Gun https://youtu.be/EG1DoHPAaRA
Forgotten Weapons
"Pom-Pom" was the name given to the 37mm Maxim gun by the Boers of South Africa, based on the gun's sound. It was a Maxim machine gun scaled up to the quite impressive 37mm caliber, intended primarily for naval use defending large vessels against small torpedo boats. This particular example is serial number 2024, made in 1889 and then sold three times before being ultimately purchased by the United States Coast Guard and installed on the USS Manning (along with a second gun, number 2026). The Manning was promptly put into military service by the Navy and steamed down to Cuba, where it participated in the first bombardment of Cuba during the Spanish-American War.

These 37mm guns could fire a wide variety of projectiles, including solid rounds which could pierce an inch (25mm) of iron armor at 100 yards and hollow rounds filled with black powder and fused to explode on impact. During World War One, they would be pushed into anti-aircraft service, with the explosive rounds being extremely effective on early aircraft (when you could get a hit, anyway).


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