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File 155996714073.jpg - (2.44MB , 4272x2848 , IMG_2202l2.jpg )
108866 No. 108866 ID: 0fd95c
I've been collecting information regarding Japanese small arms cartridges for a few years now, trying my best to sort out all the confusing Type designations. I still consider this a work-in-progress and I am still hoping to fill in some f the gaps in my collection.

Japanese Handgun Cartridges

The first modern handgun adopted by the Japanese military was the Smith & Wesson No.3 Russian revolver. The Type 26 officially replaced the aging Smith & Wesson revolvers still in service in 1893 but some of the older .44’s still remained in military stocks until the end of WWII - though most of the ammunition had degraded to the point of being nonfunctional. In addition to the .44 S&W Russian, there were also privately purchased handguns in military service chambered in 7.63x25mm Mauser, 7.65x21mm Parabellum and .32 ACP.

1- The .32 ACP was likely the most popular foreign handgun caliber in Japanese service. This was used in private purchase Colt, FN and Mauser .32 caliber pistols as well as domestic designs like the Hamada.
•Average loading used a 71gr bullet with a muzzle velocity of 905 fps.
2- The 7mm Nambu was introduced around 1902 for the Type B ‘Baby’ Nambu pistol. It was produced until the end of WW2 despite the relatively low number of pistols made for this cartridge.
•Average loading used a 56gr bullet with a muzzle velocity of 1050 fps.
3- The Type 26 revolver was the only handgun to use the 9mm Japanese revolver cartridge. It was adopted in 1893 and served until the end of WWII.
•Average loading was a 149gr bullet with a muzzle velocity of 639 fps.

4, 5 - The 8mm Nambu was used in the 1902, 1904, Type 14 and Type 94 Nambu pistols. It was also used in the Type 100 submachine gun. There were a few experimentals such as the Hino-Komura pistol and the Type I and Type II submachine guns. Most bullet jackets were cupronickel but in WWII the shift was made to gilding metal jackets.
•Average loading used a 103gr bullet with a muzzle velocity of 984 fps.

Japanese Rifle and Machine Gun Cartridges

During the Sino-Japanese War of 1894, the Japanese Army was armed primarily with the Type 22 Murata rifle which was adopted in 1889 and used a rimmed 8mm cartridge with a copper jacketed flat nosed bullet. This rifle was bolt action with an under barrel tube magazine holding eight rounds in the rifle and five rounds in the carbine. The 8mm Murata itself replaced the older 11mm Murata which was quite similar to the 11mm Mauser.
•Average Ball Type 20 loading was a 235gr with a muzzle velocity of 1840 fps.

6- The 6.5mm Arisaka Type 30 rifle was introduced in 1897 to replace the 8mm Type 22 Murata rifle. The rifle was based upon the Mauser and Mannlicher designs. This cartridge was also used in the Navy's Type 35 rifle - a modification of the Army's Type 30. A small quantity of The earliest loadings used a copper jacket which was found to cause excessive barrel fouling so the material was changed to cupronickel. These early cartridges have a slightly convex base.
•Average Ball Type 30 loading was a 161gr bullet with a muzzle velocity of 2200 fps.
7, 8, 9 - The 6.5mm Arisaka cartridge was redesigned in 1905 for the new Type 38 rifle. This version utilized a lighter, pointed bullet. Sometime prior to 1914 the bullet jacket was redesigned to thicken the forward section. This necessitated lengthening the projectile to maintain the same weight. This change was supposedly to improve long range accuracy and coincided with the introduction of the Type 3 machine gun which was based upon the M1914 Hotchkiss. Early 6.5mm Type 38’s had a wax seal around the neck which was later replaced with a pink lacquer seal to indicate Ball loadings. Bullet jackets were cupronickel until around 1941-42 when gilding metal jackets were introduced. Despite being officially replaced by the later 7.7mm cartridge in 1939, the 6.5mm rifles and machine guns soldiered on through the end of the war.
•Average Ball Type 38 loading was 139gr bullet with a muzzle velocity of 2500 fps.
Following experience in the conflict with China in the 1930’s, the Japanese military decided a larger caliber than the 6.5mm was required to improve long-range effectiveness of their small arms.
10, 11, 12 - The Imperial Navy purchased several .303 Lewis and Vickers guns after WWI. The .303 cartridge was adopted as the 7.7mm Type 89 in 1929 alongside the Vickers gun. The Lewis gun was adopted in 1932 as the Type 92. Ammo was initially supplied by Kynoch before the Japanese began to manufacture the guns and ammunition themselves. Rather uniquely among Japanese ammunition - the majority of the Imperial Japanese Navy cartridges are headstamped. This ceased in 1943, certainly a wartime expedient measure.
•Average Ball Type 89 loading was a 173gr bullet with a muzzle velocity of 2400 fps.
In 1929 a new cartridge based upon the .303 British but with a smaller rim and less taper. The Type 89 cartridge used a cupronickel jacketed bullet weighing 162gr and had a pink case mouth sealant, now the standard for indicating Ball loadings of Japanese ammunition. This cartridge was adopted for the Type 89 aircraft machine gun. There were only four variations of the Type 89 cartridge - Ball, Armor Piercing, Incendiary and Explosive. Of these, only the Ball cartridge was changed with the next revision.
•Average Ball Type 89 loading was a 162gr bullet with a muzzle velocity of 2660 fps.
13, 14 - In 1932, a new version of the semi-rimmed 7.7mm cartridge was introduced called the Type 92 alongside the Army’s new heavy machine gun. This used the same case as the Type 89 but used a heavier 203gr bullet. The armor piercing and incendiary loadings developed for the Type 89 aircraft machine gun were retained and renamed as Type 92. The explosive Ma 101 cartridge was intended only for aircraft machine gun use and as such was only issued for the Type 89. After 1939, green lacquer was applied to the primers of the semi-rimmed cartridges to help differentiate them from the new rimless cartridge which was otherwise dimensionally similar.
•Average Ball Type 92 loading was a 203gr bullet with a muzzle velocity of 2380 fps.

15 - The armor piercing 7.7x58mmSR loads were the same for both the Type 89 and Type 92. They were standardized as the Type 92 in 1932. The bullet had a hardened steel core, brass jacket and no lead envelope around the core. Production of the semi-rimmed cartridges appears to have ceased by 1943 and production was focused on the Type 99 Machine Gun cartridges which would function adequately in guns chambered for the semi-rimmed cartridge.
•Average Armor Piercing Type 92 loading was a 162gr bullet with a muzzle velocity of 2660 fps.

16 - In 1937 a new tank machine gun based upon the Czechoslovakian ZB vz.26 was adopted as the Type 97. The decision was made at this point to standardize on a new rimless version of the Type 92 cartridge - this new cartridge was called the Type 97. The Army now needed a light machine gun for the new cartridge. As a result, in 1939 the relatively new Type 96 machine gun was brought back to the drawing board and updated to chamber the new 7.7mm rimless cartridge. This incorporated many upgrades which the original design lacked which resulted an overall superior weapon. The loading data of the new cartridge was identical between the Type 97 and Type 99 and the differences lied only in the packet labels.
•Average Ball Type 97 Tank Machine Gun and Type 99 Light Machine Gun loading was a 203gr bullet with a muzzle velocity of 2380 fps.
Expand all images
>> No. 108867 ID: 0fd95c
Formatting got a bit buggered up.

17 - A new rimless 7.7mm armor piercing cartridge was also introduced for the Type 97 Tank Machine Gun. However, unlike the Ball loading, only packet labels for the Type 97 exist as this load was apparently not approved for use in the Type 99 Light Machine Gun. The armor piercing 7.7x58mm loads used the same steel core, brass jacketed bullets developed in 1932 with the 7.7mm semi-rimmed cartridge for the Type 89 and Type 92 machine guns. Ballistics were similar.
• Average Armor Piercing Type 97 loading was a 162gr bullet with a muzzle velocity of 2660 fps.

18,19 - Following the standardization of the rimless 7.7mm cartridge and the adoption of the Type 97 and Type 99 machine guns, a new rifle was soon made for this cartridge. The new Type 99 Rifle was completed in May, 1939. The case was identical to the Type 97 and Type 99 Machine Gun cartridges but used a lighter bullet at a similar muzzle velocity. Late in the war, lacquered steel cases were introduced due to shortages of brass. As other methods of wartime expediency - these are not always sealed at the case mouth and do not always have crimped primers.
• Average Ball Type 99 Rifle loading was a 183gr bullet with a muzzle velocity of 2370 fps.

The last variation of the rimless 7.7mm was the experimental Japanese Navy Type 99 cartridge which was made for the Japanese-built Garand rifles. This cartridge used the 173gr bullet from the rimmed Navy cartridge, a large domed primer as used in the rimmed case and was stab-crimped at the case mouth. The case is approximately 1mm shorter than the Army version - probably done to allow loading on the same machines as the 7.7mm Rimmed cartridges. As very few of the Type 4/Type 5 semiautomatic rifles were built, the majority of these were used in the Type 99 rifles and carbines produced by the Naval Arsenals starting in 1942.
• I have not been able to find a reliable velocity figure for this cartridge but I suspect it is near 2450 fps given the lighter bullet and similar powder charge as compared to the Type 99 Rifle Ball.

Japan was supplied with a small number of MG-15 and MG-17 machine guns by Germany as part of Axis cooperation. These were then made under license as the Type 98 aircraft machine gun in 1938. Three loadings were made of this cartridge: The first used a cupronickel-clad steel jacket weighing 154gr and similar in design to the German “S” bullet. The second used a gilding metal jacketed bullet weighing 166gr and was designated the Type 98. These first two both have a rounded ogive like the Type 99 7.7mm Rimless rifle cartridge. The last used a a streamlined boat-tailed bullet weighing 199gr and similar in design to the German “sS” bullet.
• Average Ball 7.92mm Rifle loading was a 154gr bullet with a muzzle velocity of 2880 fps.
• Average Ball Type 98 loading was a 166gr bullet with a muzzle velocity of 2370 fps.

20 - By the beginning of WWII, the Army Air Service was using the twin-barreled Type 100 and the Type 1 copies of German machine guns. The Type 1 Aircraft Machine Gun ammunition were copies of the German 8mm Mauser designs. The Ball loading is equivalent to the German Ball “sS”, using a 199gr boat tailed bullet. The Navy also made versions of this cartridge which were used in MG-15 and MG-17 machine guns. There were not many of these guns in service and as such there were not vast quantities of the ammunition produced. The Navy 7.92mm cartridges are especially scarce.
• Average Ball Type 1 Aircraft Machine Gun loading was a 199gr bullet with a muzzle velocity of 2595 fps.
>> No. 108868 ID: 0fd95c
I hope to expand this in the future if I can obtain some of the missing cartridges. Here is a summary of the cartridges and their weapons, as if this wasn’t confusing enough!

.44 Smith & Wesson Russian
•Smith & Wesson No.3 Russian Model Revolver
•Smith & Wesson New Model No.3 Revolver

9x22mm Type 26 (26th year of Meiji period - 1893)
•Type 26 Revolver

8x22mm Type 14 (14th year of Taishō period - 1925
•Type 4 (Type A) Nambu
•Type 14 Nambu
•Type 92 Nambu

7x20mm Nambu
•Type B (Baby) Nambu

11x60mm Rimmed Type 13 (13th Year of Meiji period - 1880)
•Type 13 Rifle
•Type 16 Carbine
•Type 18 Rifle

8x53mm Rimmed Type 20 (20th Year of Meiji period - 1887)
•Type 20 Rifle
•Type 22 Rifle
•Type 27 Carbine

6.5x50mm Semi-Rimmed Type 30 (30th year of Meiji period - 1897)
•Type 30 Rifle
•Type 30 Carbine
•Type 35 Rifle
•Type 'Ho' Mle.1900 Machine Gun (purchased from France)

6.5x50mm Semi-Rimmed Type 38 (38th year of Meiji period - 1905)
•Type 38 Rifle
•Type 38 Short Rifle
•Type 38 Carbine
•Type 38 Sniper Rifle
•Type 1 Paratrooper Rifle
•Type 44 Cavalry carbine
•Type 97 Sniper rifle
•Type ‘I’ Rifle (‘I’ is not a Roman numeral, it refers to ‘Italy’)
•Type 19 Rifle (North China)
•Type 3 Machine Gun
•Type 11 Machine Gun
•Type 39 Machine Gun
•Type 91 Machine Gun
•Type 96 Machine Gun

7.7x56mm Rimmed Type 89 (Imperial year Kōki 2589 - 1929)
•Type 89 Machine Gun (Vickers)
•Type 92 Machine Gun (Lewis)
•Type 97 Machine Gun

7.7x58mm Semi-Rimmed Type 89 (Imperial year Kōki 2589 - 1929)
•Type 89 Machine Gun (Aircraft MG - Twin and Single versions, based on the Type 11 MG)

7.7x58mm Semi-Rimmed Type 92 (Imperial year Kōki 2592 - 1932)
•Type 92 Machine Gun (would also fire the rimless 7.7x58)
•Type 97 Machine Gun (Tank MG)

7.7x58mm Rimless Type 97 (Imperial year Kōki 2597 - 1937)
•Type 1 Machine Gun (an “improvement” of the Type 92, it would not work with the 7.7x58SR)
•Type 99 Machine Gun (designed for the 7.7x58 it would also work with the 7.7x58SR)

7.7x58mm Rimless Type 99 (Imperial year Kōki 2599 - 1939)
•Type 99 Long Rifle
•Type 99 Short Rifle
•Type 99 Sniper Rifle
•Type 100 Paratrooper Rifle
•Type 2 Paratrooper Rifle
•Type 4/Type 5 Rifle (experimental based upon M1 Garand)

7.92x57mm Type 98 Ball (Imperial year Kōki 2598 - 1938)
•Type 98 Aircraft Machine Guns (MG-15 and MG-17 aircraft MGs)
•Type ‘Chi’ ZB vz.26 Machine Gun (captured from Chinese forces)
•Type ‘Mo’ Mauser rifles (Purchased from Czechoslovakia and Germany as well as captured from Chinese forces)
•‘Type 30’ Rifle (North China)

7.92x57mm Type 1 Army (Imperial year Kōki 2601 - 1941)
•Type 1 Machine Gun (Japanese-built MG-15 aircraft machine gun)
•Type 100 Machine Gun (Twin-barrel aircraft MG)
>> No. 108873 ID: 9dcda2
Holy shit it's Drake! Sorry I don't have any info, but good stuff man.
>> No. 108876 ID: d9f7f4
File 15600372238.jpg - (197.90KB , 1152x834 , bullets, Japanese & Italian rifle ammo.jpg )
From what I have read, Japanese ammo in WW2 was a confusing mess where subtly different variants of one cartridge were made for rifles, light machine-guns and heavy machine-guns and they weren't interchangeable and weren't obviously marked in their head-stamps (I read they were better described in their shipping crates).

An example: while the round chambered by the Arisaka rifle used a rimless case, rimmed and semi-rimmed variants were produced for use in some Japanese machine guns. This machine gun ammunition is more powerful, and the altered rim is meant to prevent it from being chambered in a rifle.
>> No. 108877 ID: 0fd95c
Now that is an antique photo, about twelve years ago. I'm almost embarrassed that is still floating around.

You're correct about the confusion as the vast majority of Japanese cartridges have no headstamp at all. As I mentioned in the body of text, the semi-rimmed 7.7mm predates the rimless version but the rimless 7.7mm machine gun and rifle cartridges are not the same loading - but do have the same case dimensions. Thankfully, the rifle's projectile shape is unique when compared to the machine gun cartridges. The Type 97 and Type 99 machine gun loadings, for example, are completely indistinguishable once removed from their packets.

I suspect high blood pressure was a comment ailment in the IJA supply system.
>> No. 108878 ID: 218cb4
File 156003998354.jpg - (328.03KB , 1500x701 , Japan WW2 Type 2 Model A 8mm Nambu 1935 SMG 2.jpg )
An interesting Japanese SMG of WW2 (one of the few) was the experimental Type II Model A in 8x22mm Nambu made in 1935. Had a 50-round magazine that was inserted in the handle, like the later Czech Sa Vz 23 and Israeli Uzi.

Unfortunately the 8mm Nambu cartridge was just not sufficient enough to work the blowback action of the Type II. The submachine gun had a system of springs and buffers in the receiver that corresponded with the bolt. Adjusting this system would also adjust the speed at which the bolt would be returning forward for firing the next round. Essentially a submachine gun with an adjustable rate of fire. https://www.thefirearmblog.com/blog/2016/09/01/pistol-grip-magazine-well-predates-czech-sa-vz-23/
>> No. 108879 ID: 218cb4
File 156004002555.jpg - (405.03KB , 1440x909 , Japan WW2 Type 2 Model A 8mm Nambu 1935 SMG 3.jpg )
>> No. 108880 ID: c917a1
File 15600400538.jpg - (541.20KB , 1500x990 , Japan WW2 Type 2 Model A 8mm Nambu 1935 SMG 5.jpg )
>> No. 108881 ID: d6e893
File 156004026219.jpg - (570.45KB , 1500x1174 , Japan WW2 Type 2 Model A 8mm Nambu 50-round magazi.jpg )
>> No. 108882 ID: 218cb4
File 156004036155.jpg - (111.47KB , 1280x392 , Japan WW1 Type 2 Model B 8mm Nambu SMG 1.jpg )
Japanese Model II Type A
Japanese submachine guns are a particularly unknown corner of firearms history – the most common model is the Type 100, and ever it is exceedingly rare today. So we were pretty interested when we found a report from British troops in India on a captured Japanese SMG. The report is dated February 1946, so this specific gun was likely not encountered in combat.

As best we can tell from our single reference book on this sort of thing (William Easterly’s Japanese Submachine Guns), this is a Model II, Type A, Variant 1 gun. The basic design (the Model II) was first built in 1934, and was the brainchild of the prolific Japanese arms designer Kijiro Nambu. It was chambered for the standard 8mm Nambu pistol cartridge, and was initially provided with 50-round magazines. We’ve never handled one ourselves (nor have we seen one in person, actually), but on paper it appears to be a very slick little gun. The barrel was 9.5 inches long, and the overall weapon just 26 inches long and 6.25 pounds. It operated on a simple blowback principle, and the 30-round magazines provided on the Type A version are a good compromise in handling and firepower (the 50-round mags were really too large for convenient use). The light 8mm Nambu cartridge was not particularly effective in combat, but it would certainly make for a very light recoiling weapon, and the sights are better than many contemporary SMG designs. https://www.forgottenweapons.com/submachine-guns/japanese-model-ii-type-a/
>> No. 108883 ID: 7bc924
File 156004043640.jpg - (76.39KB , 1000x401 , Japan WW2 Type 2 8mm Nambu SMG.jpg )
A unique feature of this and other early Japanese SMG designs is the use of an adjustable buffer assembly. As the bolt flies backwards after firing, it is caught by a piston connected to a compressed-air buffer in the rear of the receiver. As the bolt pushes backwards, air in the buffer can only escape through a small valve, which has multiple different sized holes which the shooter can select from. This allows the bolt velocity to be controlled, thus giving the shooter control over the gun’s rate of fire. Our reference book says the rate can be 500 or 600 rpm, but the original report says the buffer has five different holes to select from.

Another interesting feature of this specific variant of the Model II (the Type A Variant 1), is that it was developed in 1942 for use mounted on a vehicle. A metal nosecap with a large round lug is visible just below the muzzle, and the right side of the receiver has a large metal plate with a second attachment point. What vehicle this was intended for, we don’t know.

The Model II SMG was an experimental design in the development of what would eventually be adopted as the Type 100, and it likely never saw combat. That this one was even found by British forces after the war is a bit surprising.
>> No. 108884 ID: 7bc924
File 156004047170.jpg - (202.70KB , 2583x765 , Japan WW2 Type 2B Nambu SMG 1944.jpg )
>> No. 108885 ID: 5ddd04
File 156004078729.jpg - (194.63KB , 1280x986 , Japan WW2 Type 2 Variant 1 SMG with mags 1.jpg )
Japanese Model II Type A Variant 1 SMG with mags
>> No. 108886 ID: e56201
File 156010304965.jpg - (448.65KB , 3857x865 , bullets, rifle ammo by Drake 3.jpg )
> I'm almost embarrassed that is still floating around.
Lots more where that came from...
>> No. 108887 ID: 751d6a
I gotta say the Japs really dropped the ball by not focusing more of their efforts toward a larger sub-machinegun program. It would have made a lot more sense and in the jungle environments they were in.
>> No. 108889 ID: d6e893
File 156010984144.jpg - (176.14KB , 1280x956 , Chinese WW2 troops w SIG M1920 copy of the German .jpg )
If you were in charge of munitions in Japan in 1941, what SMG would you choose to copy to equip the troops?
SMGs like the Finnish Suomi KP-31 are renowned for being accurate and steady to fire but are heavy and slow and expensive to manufacture as so much of it is precisely machined. The US Thompson is also heavy and expensive (but it would be interesting if the Japanese equipped themselves with Tommy Gun copies in order to scrounge ammo and magazines from their American enemies). The German MP40 is a steady shooter made from mostly inexpensive sheet steel and plastic. The UK Sten Gun is the cheapest bullet-sprayer, but had reliability and safety problems. The Soviet PPSh-41 is a solid contender and more reliable if 35-round box mags are used.

- Chinese troops with SIG M1920 submachine guns. The SIG M1920 was a licensed copy of the German MP18/I, and SIG sold them to Japan in 7.63mm Mauser caliber. They were used by the Special Naval Landing Forces, as well as Chinese troops like those pictured here.
>> No. 108890 ID: 48ddd0
File 156011066891.jpg - (235.76KB , 1848x1624 , Australian WW2 Owen 9x19mm SMG 6.jpg )
I probably would select the Australian Owen machine carbine as I have heard good things about this strange looking SMG. Plus, it would be ironic if the Japanese used an Australian SMG that was at first roadblocked and rejected by their own brass. Plus, the Owen could use all those captured crates of British 9mm ammo after Malaysia fell and during the Burma campaign.

The Owen submachine gun was rejected at first, because before WW2 the Australian Army like the British didn't see the tactical advantage of an SMG. When WW2 began, the Owen was reconsidered. It went into production about mid 1941, with about 50,000 produced by 1945. The Owen was the most reliable submachine gun of WW2 as it was highly ergonomic/ambidextrous, maintainable, cost effective, simple, rugged in harsh environments and notably outed the Sten/Austen, Thompson, Sterling and MP40 in 1943 trials. Later on it saw use in the Korean war, the Malayan emergency and Vietnam. In 1963, the Owen was officially replaced by the F1 Submachine Gun. https://guns.fandom.com/wiki/Owen_gun
>> No. 108891 ID: 218cb4
File 156011094948.jpg - (420.86KB , 1229x922 , Australian WW2 Owen 9x19mm SMG 2.jpg )
The Owen has a simple blowback design, firing from an open bolt. It was designed to be fired either from the shoulder or the hip. It is easily recognisable, owing to its unconventional appearance, including the top-mounted magazine, and the side-mounted sight required to allow the firer to aim past it. The placement of the magazine allows gravity to assist the magazine spring in pushing cartridges down to the breech, which improves feeding reliability. Another unusual feature is the separate compartment inside the receiver, which isolates the small-diameter bolt from its retracting handle by means of a small bulkhead. This prevents dirt and mud from jamming the bolt, and makes the Owen a highly reliable weapon. Foreign dirt entering the gun would collect at the back of the receiver, where it would drain out or be expelled through a small opening. When tested, the Owen gun was able to continue firing despite being dipped in mud and drenched with sand, while a Sten gun and a Thompson also tested stopped functioning at once. In jungle warfare, where both mud and sand were frequent problems, the Owen gun was highly regarded by the soldiers.

To facilitate cleaning, the ejector was built into the magazine, rather than the body of the gun. This allowed the barrel to be removed rapidly, by pulling up a spring-loaded plunger in front of the magazine housing. After removing the barrel, the bolt and return spring are removed in a forward direction, completely dismantling the gun. Like the Sten, and Austen, the Owen had a non-folding wire buttstock, but also had pistol grips. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Owen_Gun
>> No. 108892 ID: 5ddd04
File 156011112173.jpg - (268.13KB , 1107x830 , Australian WW2 Owen 9x19mm SMG 3.jpg )
>> No. 108893 ID: 5ddd04
File 156011117170.jpg - (421.82KB , 1229x922 , Australian WW2 Owen 9x19mm SMG 4 cutaway.jpg )
>> No. 108894 ID: 5ddd04
File 156011122498.jpg - (421.96KB , 1718x1102 , Australian WW2 Owen Mk I 1941 schematic 1.jpg )
>> No. 108895 ID: d9f7f4
File 156011136415.jpg - (827.07KB , 2000x999 , Australian WW2 Owen 9x19mm SMG 5.jpg )
>> No. 108896 ID: d9f7f4
File 156011151137.jpg - (55.98KB , 800x396 , Australian WW2 Owen Mk I field stripped showing fr.jpg )
Owen Mk I field stripped showing front loading bolt, load bearing piston and return spring.

Owen and Austen - The WW 2 ‘Aussie’ Machine Carbine Story
>> No. 108897 ID: c917a1
File 156011166892.jpg - (424.04KB , 3122x2263 , Australian WW2 Owen and Austen SMGs 1.jpg )
The Owen and Austen (Aussie Sten)
>> No. 108898 ID: ee9094
File 156011186212.jpg - (44.82KB , 800x275 , Australian WW2 Sten copy Austen Mk I SMG 1.jpg )
Austen Mk I
The design of the reliable Owen with its front loading bolt and return spring on a round piston that slid backwards and forwards in a channel/guide effectively sealed the chamber, bolt and spring area from water, sand and mud. Any mud that did get in was captured in areas machined on both ends of the bolt or blown out via the bottom ejection port. The Owen also had no sliding surfaces under heavy load. The entire rearward thrust of the fired cartridge was on an axial plane with out the need for sliding or rotating surfaces. The cocking handle was located in the rear section of the gun body and fitted on to the back of the piston. The cocking handle travelling back and forward in a slot on the gun body kept the floating bolt in the correct plane. Any mud that entered this rear section could not move forward into the chamber and bolt area. The top loading magazine and bottom port effectively utilised gravity negating the need for a heavy magazine spring and an easy to loose loading tool. The rear face of the magazine acted as an ejector making it easy to replace by swapping magazines.

By comparison the Sten and Austen with their rear loading bolts were both built on an open gun body that allowed any sand, water and mud to surround the bolt, return spring and enter the chamber. Both guns used magazine loading tools due to the stronger spring tension needed to feed the cartridges on the horizontal plane.
>> No. 108899 ID: 5ddd04
File 156011193897.jpg - (103.07KB , 800x631 , Australian WW2 Sten copy Austen Mk I field strippe.jpg )
Austen Mk I field stripped showing rear loading separate bolt, return spring and firing pin assembly.
>> No. 108900 ID: 751d6a
They should have done something in the equivalent of a grease gun but in 8mm nambu.
>> No. 108901 ID: d6e893
File 156011214356.jpg - (322.30KB , 968x484 , Australian WW2 Sten Austen loading tool (left) &am.jpg )
Austen loading tool (left) ..... Sten Mk I loading tool (right)
The Owen gun, as expected, performed well. The Thompson, Sten, MP40 and the Austen all failed to fire the first magazine and the Austen suffered several mechanical problems including broken springs. Major General Milford in his report understated the Owen and overstated the Austen test results.
But, what did the troops in New Guinea think of both guns? The following are extracts from a report written by Major Hall.

Austen gun working parts exposed.
Austen will not fire as well as the Owen after immersion in mud.
The need for a magazine loader with the Austen is a disadvantage.
The Austen’s barrel needs a flash hider/compensator like the Owen.
The Austen’s butt is too long.
The Owens top loading magazine and catch design allows for faster magazine change and more reliable feeding.
The Owen is better balanced than the Austin.
The Owen has less parts and is easier to field strip.
The Owen is more accurate than the Austin at 100 yards.
More vibration is noted with the Austen than the Owen.
>> No. 108902 ID: d9f7f4
File 156011314487.jpg - (115.23KB , 450x1001 , bullets, Japanese 8x22mm Nambu introduced in 1904.jpg )
Perhaps, but the 8mm Nambu was just a poor cartridge. I would just cut bait on that and go for 9x19mm or 7.62x25mm Tokarev.
>> No. 108903 ID: d9f7f4
File 156011324031.jpg - (277.79KB , 1200x720 , Australian WW2 Sten copy Austen Mk I SMG 2.jpg )
World War II Fully Automatic Class III "Sales Sample" AUSTEN MK I Submachine Gun
This is a very scarce early WWII AUSTEN submachine gun as manufactured in 1942/43 in Australia. These weapons were developed by the Australian Government due to the shortage in acceptable submachine guns from the British Government and are actually based on two different weapons; the British STEN and German MP40 SMGs, with some manufacturing improvements from the Australians. Their name was derived from two words; "AUstralia" and "STEN", hence the name AUSTEN. With only approximately 20,000 in total made so they had a very small/limited production run and are considered very scarce today. The basic STEN parts are the receiver tube, barrel and locking collar, lower trigger housing/group, with the German designed parts being the folding MP40 style buttstock, the bolt and telescoping firing assembly. The Australian parts/designs are the one-piece cast aluminum magazine well and forward pistol grip assembly (vs. the stamped and welded British version) and the larger/more robust rear collar on the receiver tube. These SMGs use the standard STEN magazine and are considered to be one of the most reliable WWII SMGs. The top of the magazine housing has the cast in markings of an intertwined "WTC/AUSTEN MKI/No. C2999". It still retains its original matching barrel that is marked on the side "C2999/Australian Crown/Crossed Flags" with a very small old import mark on the front section. https://www.icollector.com/Rare-and-Desirable-World-War-II-Fully-Automatic-Class-III-Sales-Sample-AUSTEN-MK-I-Submachine-Gun_i17059285
Manufucture: Austen - England
Model: MK-1
BBL: 7 1/2 inch round
Stock: steel
Guage: 9 mm Luger
>> No. 108904 ID: d6e893
File 156011328086.jpg - (48.31KB , 478x768 , Australian WW2 Sten copy Austen Mk I SMG 4.jpg )
>> No. 108905 ID: 48ddd0
File 156011368944.jpg - (46.62KB , 768x573 , Australian WW2 Sten copy Austen suppressed in Born.jpg )
A lieutenant colonel Tucker, commanding officer of the 2/23 Infantry Battalion, testing a suppressed Austen in Borneo in September 1945. https://warisboring.com/43045-2/
>> No. 108906 ID: d9f7f4
  Local Boy Saves Nation: The Australian Owen SMG https://youtu.be/g_3AoDf7CeE
The One submachine gun is one of the ugliest SMGs ever designed, and yet also one of the most beloved by its users. The original basis for the gun was a .22 rimfire submachine gun designed by 23-year-old Australian Evelyn Owen. That prototype was found by his neighbor Vincent Wardell after Owen left for military service. Wardell was the manager of Lysaght Works, an engineering firm, and thought that the gun might be the basis for a useful military SMG. As it turned out, he was right - it became the standard SMG of The Australian military through World War Two and the Korean War, and was one of the best such guns of that period. For more details on the history of the Owen, see my full article:
>> No. 108907 ID: 5ddd04
  The Australian Owen SMG https://youtu.be/mmAigxjQbtE
The Australian-designed Owen submachine gun is a weapon with quite a story behind it. The Owen is arguably the best subgun used during WWII, and also probably the ugliest. Its mere existence was a drawn out struggle between the inventor and manufacturer and the Australian Army bureaucracy, and yet it saw service through into the Vietnam War.
>> No. 108908 ID: 7bc924
  Owen Gun Issue Title Is Account Rendered (1942) https://youtu.be/23M6H_rec6Y
Various shots of new type of machine gun being tested. The inventor of the Owen gun is Evelyn Owen. We see him demonstrating the gun in front of group of officials. The gun is incredibly durable; it works in sandy, wet or muddy conditions.
>> No. 108909 ID: 218cb4
File 156011850811.jpg - (1.36MB , 3000x2000 , Australian WW2 Owen Gun & transit case 1.jpg )
Owen Mk I with a transit case used by the Australian military.
>> No. 108910 ID: d6e893
File 156011854420.jpg - (866.56KB , 2880x1113 , Australian WW2 Owen Gun & transit case 2.jpg )
>> No. 108911 ID: d6e893
File 156011856898.jpg - (549.38KB , 2376x807 , Australian WW2 Owen Gun & transit case w suppr.jpg )
This particular weapon has an additional accessory as well.
>> No. 108912 ID: d6e893
File 156011859315.jpg - (772.48KB , 2400x1442 , Australian WW2 Owen Gun & transit case 3.jpg )
>> No. 108913 ID: ee9094
File 156011913669.jpg - (293.35KB , 1127x900 , bullets, Russian 7_62x25 Tokarev, 7_63x25 Mauser, .jpg )
And... back to Japanese Cartridges 1900-1945.

- Russian 7.62x25 Tokarev, 7.63x25 Mauser, 8x22 Nambu, 7.65x21 Para, 5.45x18 PSM

The Nambu is the lead bullet in the middle.
>> No. 108938 ID: d9f7f4
File 156029550529.jpg - (120.69KB , 1440x1080 , pistol Japan WW2 Nambu Type 94 with slab side wood.jpg )
WWII Japanese Type 94 Pistol with Slab Side Wood Grips. Typical late war crude finish Type 94 with the flat wood grips that distinguish this pistol from the earlier versions.

Unintentional firing:
The poor design of the breech allowed the Type 94 Nambu to be fired unintentionally. The sear bar on the Type 94 Nambu converts the forward pull of the trigger into a lateral movement that frees the hammer. Because the sear bar is on the outside of the pistol, it could be jarred loose during engagement if the pistol was cocked and handled carelessly. The forward end of the sear bar would need to be depressed approximately 2mm to cause the weapon to fire. The ability to fire the Type 94 without pulling the trigger gave rise to war stories of Japanese soldiers surrendering, only to fire the pistol, earning the pistol monikers such as the “suicide special” and the “surrender pistol”. These stories are widely discredited because of the difficulty to fire the weapon by squeezing the sear bar. If the safety is engaged on the Type 94 it is impossible for the weapon to discharge unintentionally. https://warpathmilitaria.com/product/wwii-japanese-type-94-pistol-with-slab-side-wood-grips/
>> No. 108939 ID: 7bc924
File 156029554517.jpg - (111.83KB , 1440x1080 , pistol Japan WW2 Nambu Type 94 with slab side wood.jpg )
>> No. 108940 ID: 7bc924
File 156029566128.jpg - (183.62KB , 1440x1080 , pistol Japan WW2 Nambu Type 94 with slab side wood.jpg )
Here's the notorious exposed sear for an emergency method of firing the weapon if the trigger breaks and for adding some excitement when holstering it.
>> No. 108941 ID: 5ddd04
File 156029580684.jpg - (191.14KB , 1440x1080 , pistol Japan WW2 Nambu Type 94 with slab side wood.jpg )
Look at that precision machining and polishing.
These pistols are actually in demand by collectors because they are so ugly, poorly made and dangerously designed.
>> No. 108945 ID: eb9dbe
I'm slightly confused as to how that's much worse than the external trigger bar on a Beretta 92.
>> No. 108946 ID: c917a1
Does it cause the pistol to negligently or unexpectedly discharge?
I had a WW2 Walther P.38 and she had a trigger bar outside of the frame that didn't cause me any problems.
M9 Trigger problem Repair https://youtu.be/w8a_67nAdyI
>> No. 108948 ID: 9dcda2
File 156051911933.png - (1.29MB , 1920x1080 , disasm_2019_06_14_09_19_52_141.png )
Screenshot from World of Guns on Steam. The Beretta trigger bar is pulled forward by the trigger and trips the sear. The trigger is a lever that gives your finger some mechanical advantage to pull the trigger bar forward.
>> No. 108949 ID: 9dcda2
  FF to 1:37.

The sear bar on the Type 94 directly operates the striker, and pivots inward, where your holster could push it in.
>> No. 108950 ID: 9dcda2
  FF to 0:40

The Luger actually has the same issue, except that the sear bar is covered by the trigger side plate in normal operation. But if left loaded, it can be fired with the slide and frame separated.
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