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2696 No. 2696 ID: 8c1454
As decreed by the ancient profits of Threadology - welcome to the Acid Man explosives thread!

Some of this will be interesting, some of it will be boring, and some of it will be downright dangerous. Whichever you like best, all students in the Chemistry Class are required to

>Dealwithit.jpg

Explosives. Surely if there is a contention issue concerning possession by we mere "civilians" it is this. Nevermind that most of the great chemistry breakthroughs accomplished in this art over the centuries have been made by nerdy, unlicensed, obsessive men working in their kitchens and not in the great corporate laboratories of the world. Its amazing how the people will create something, and then the government has the right to claim it as their own domain and seize it from the populace. "For their own good", of course.

But I digress. All political opinions aside, explosives are not unlawful to play with provided one abides by the requirements of the law. The first thing we are going to discuss is legality.

>The absolute purpose of this thread is to be informative and educational, for the benefit of this community. NOTHING, and I can not emphasize this enough, that is presented in this thread is intended to be applied by any person or organization, including the author, in any manner which would be inconsistent with any local, state, or federal law under any circumstances. I ask and encourage the mods to keep a close watch on this thread and remove any content that violates this disclaimer, no matter who posts it.

The first thing to know when it concerns explosives law, is that you need a license to really get into the art. A Federal Explosives License is actually very easy to get! I know some of our community are HAM radio OPERATORs, and the difficulty of the requirement is actually very comparable. Let us look at the paperwork:

>The application for an ATF Explosives License:
http://www.atf.gov/forms/download/atf-f-5400-13.pdf

>Pertinent regulations and rules:
http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr&rgn=div5&view=text&node=27:3.0.1.3.5&idno=27
http://www.atf.gov/publications/download/p/atf-p-5400-7.pdf

As you can see, the license to manufacture explosives costs a whopping $200. Chickenfeed compared to the trouble you'll be in for messing with this stuff much without one. If you only want to play around with explosives you purchase from other manufacturers, the "Limited Permit" classification is only $25! The paperwork is not difficult and only takes a few minutes to fill out and submit. You'll have ATF inspectors check out your location and give you a quick interview, and they'll give you a copy of the Regulations book and send you on your merry way. Easy peezy - so don't fuck it up! If you intend to store explosives for any length of time you will need a qualified magazine. These can be purchased for big bucks, or you can make one out of sand, cinderblocks, an old wall safe, and concrete in a safe outdoor location. It doesn't have to be big - I know a guy who built one for $250 that's only 1'x2'x10" deep - plenty big for an experimenter. The requirements are covered in the regulations - it has to be a certain size with a certain wall thickness and multiple locks, and be placed a safe distance from inhabitable buildings.

With the legal stuff outlined, lets take a look at the very basic chemistry that goes in in an explosive.

>What is an explosive?
>What are "High" and "Low" explosives?
>What is "detonation" as opposed to "deflagration"?
>What does "high order" mean?
>What are "confinement" and "critical diameter" and what role do they play?
>What kinds of chemical reactions (nitration, oxidation, reduction) make explosives?
>What chemicals are required to make these reactions?
>What are the general types of explosives (primary, secondary, booster, bulk) and what are they used for?

Welcome to the Acid Man Explosives Thread. Buckle your seatbelts, because V-Tech is about to kick in, yo!
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>> No. 2701 ID: 5b9651
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2701
>what is an explosive?

The practical answer is that an explosive is any material which can be induced to a state of rapid, self-sustaining chemical reaction and which produced an amount of pressure and gaseous emission greater than the original volume of the material.

"Anything that can be chemically made to go BOOM!"

Nearly every person in the US works with explosives on a daily basis without realizing it. That 20 gallon gas tank on the bottom of your car could blast a building into toothpicks if it were improperly applied! Gasoline is a very powerful FUEL, and when combined in the right proportions with an OXIDIZER, like air, and then CONFINED in a cylinder and provided with some source of IGNITION like a spark plug, then you get an EXPLOSION.

Seeing a pattern there?

For most materials, you can not make a blanket statement of "this is an explosive with this much power blah blah blah" because the explosivity of a material is actually graphable as a curve. All of its attributes as an explosive are depended on varying levels of these four components:

>Fuel
>Oxidizer
>Confinement
>Ignition

When these things are all set up "just right" you can make anything from a gentle, heaving explosion, to a sharp, shattering explosion, to a complete dud that can not explode at all. Ever wonder what Octane in your gasoline is for? It raises the detonation threshold in your fuel. Inside your engine, you want the fuel to "deflagrate", which means that it explodes quickly but not at a rate exceeding the speed of sound. If the fuel DOES detonate (explodes quickly with a supersonic shockwave), the resulting shockwave from the explosion can damage your engine - this is actually the phenomenon of "engine knock" and why engine knock is a very bad thing. Its like stuffing your motor heads full of pipe bombs!

So what the hell is an "explosion" anyway?

I want you to imagine one of the old Bug Bunny cartoons. Bugs is on a pirate ship and he sneaks up onto the deck with a barrel of gunpowder. He uncorks the end and starts pouring a little trail of gunpowder from the deck, down the stairs, and into the hold. His powder line stops at a big pile of gunpowder barrels. Yosemite Sam is up top though, and thinking he'll get the better of Bugs, he lights the end of the powder train with a match.

The gunpowder BURNS slowly, like a fuse, trailing across the deck and down the stairs. The reason why gunpowder burns is because within its mixture it has the two ingredients needed to cause combustion. A fuel (charcoal, in gunpowder's case) and something to provide oxygen to the internal fire (saltpeter, or sodium nitrate, releases oxygen when it burns). Since the gunpowder is just poured in a line and not confined, it burns at a slow, steady rate all the way down into the hold. But what happens when it lights the packed barrels of gunpowder down there? THE WHOLE SHIP IS BLOWN TO BITS!

The reason is because the barrels CONFINE the gunpowder. The burn rate of an explosive is controlled partly by its density - how packed together it is. The tighter it is packed, the more easily the "fire" inside can reach and ignite each bit of explosive. When you confine an explosive and then ignite it, the resulting gasses have nowhere to go! So they CRUSH the explosive material together with a spike of pressure. This ramps the density of the explosive through the roof in a split second, and now you have all that fuel and oxidizer packed so closely together that the "fire" inside it (that we perceive as an explosion because it happens so fast) can "jump" from each particle of gunpowder to the next VERY quickly compared to the unconfined "fuse". So quickly in fact, that the material appears to burn up all at once, finally rupturing the confining barrel due to the pressure and EXPLODING.
>> No. 2702 ID: 8adb5a
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2702
When are they gonna get to the fireworks factory?
>> No. 2703 ID: 0a488a
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2703
ohboy!
>> No. 2704 ID: 8c1454
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2704
There are two basic classifications of explosives from a practical point of view.

>You have "explosive compounds and mixtures".
>and "molecular explosives."

The difference is in the structure.

In a compound or mixture explosive, you have a combination of two or more different materials. The key components are a fuel and an oxidizer. Fuels can be anything which is combustible, and oxidizers can be any material (including raw oxygen gas) which can quickly supply the appropriate volume of oxygen to the fuel. Some examples and their components are:

>Black powder - charcoal (fuel) and saltpeter (oxidizer).
>Cheddite - Vaseline (fuel) and potassium chlorate (oxidizer).
>LOX Explosive - Coal dust (fuel) and liquid oxygen (oxidizer).
>NMNA - Nitromethane (fuel) and red fuming nitric acid (oxidizer).
>Fuel-Air Explosive (FAE) - A combustible material such as ethylene oxide or sawdust (fuel) that is released in a large cloud so that it can mix with a large volume of ambient air (oxidizer).

The other type of explosive is a "molecular explosive." These are materials who have a single molecular structure that incorporates enough oxygen atoms to react its own fuel atoms. Because the fuel and oxidizer are bonded into one molecule, these can be VERY dense materials from a standpoint of energy transmission (the atoms are RIGHT NEXT TO EACHOTHER from the start and confinement only helps). That tends to make them the most powerful types of explosive. They can also be molecules that are unstable, and who will undergo some energy-releasing chain reaction when the weakest bonds are broken by an input of energy. Examples include:

>Nitroglycerine - glycerine molecules (fuel) bonded with nitro molecules (N03 - oxidizer. When the molecule breaks down from some input of energy, the 3 oxygen atoms separate from the nitro group due to the weak chemical bond and combust the fuel).
>Trinitrotoluene (TNT) - Toluene molecules (fuel) bonded with THREE nitro molecules (N03 - oxidizer) each.
>Ammonium nitrate - Formula NH4NO3. An ammonia molecule and a nitro molecule break down in a reaction to form nitrogen gas and water, releasing energy in the process.
>Erythritol tetranitrate (ETN) - Erythritol is a sugar (fuel), and molecularly bonds to FOUR nitro groups (oxidizer), providing enough oxygen to combust its own fuel mass with some free oxygen left over.

There is a certain amount of oxygen that has to be combined with a given fuel to combust it completely. The more complete the combustion, the greater the relative power of the explosive. This ratio is affected by the surface area of the fuel material. The more surface are of the fuel in contact with the oxidizer, the faster the fuel can combust, and the faster the combustion the more powerful the explosion. The reason why FAEs, for instance, have to be dispersed as a vapor or dust cloud is because to actually explode the particles of fuel have to be very small. The smaller the particles, the bigger the average surface area of the cloud and so the more oxygen it can use from the atmosphere.

Most explosives also have something called a "critical diameter." Meaning the mass of the explosive has to have a cross section of a certain minimum size, otherwise the explosion reaction will peter out because it can't set off enough new explosive at once to keep itself going. Generally speaking, the more powerful and sensitive the explosive, the smaller the critical diameter (if its easy to set off, and transmits a lot of power, its unlikely to run out of gas in the middle of the reaction. Makes sense.) ETN, for instance, is sensitive and very powerful and has a critical diameter of just a few millimeters. Ammonium nitrate is insensitive and relatively weak, so its critical diameter is measured in inches.

The difference between fire and explosion is the speed of reaction. Remember that. The faster it goes, the bigger the boom. All explosive science really is, is figuring out ways to make things burn faster.

>Take a fuel that burns.
>Add an oxidizer, so it doesn't have to take time getting oxygen from the air around it.
>Bind the fuel and oxidizer into a single molecule so they start very close together.
>Pack the material tightly so the explosion can jump from unit to unit faster.
>Confine it so the pressure of the explosion itself will make the explosive more dense and make the jumps even shorter as it goes.
>Make sure the mass has a big enough cross section that the reaction can't run out of juice before it finishes.
>Initiate it with a powerful spark of energy to set off as much of it as possible all at once, transmitting more energy more quickly across a bigger front.

You now understand how an explosive works.
>> No. 2707 ID: 5b9651
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2707
Now I want you to bear in mind that my explanations above are couched in layman's terms. They do convey a correct picture of what is happening in the explosive process, but if you really want to dig into the chemistry there is plenty more to learn. You can learn how a lot of the energy from a nitro-molecule explosive comes from the breaking of the strong nitrogen bond, the chemical definition of a compound explosive versus how I have described it, and plenty more. My goal is to make it all understandable. If you really want to nerd out over it, go grab some college Chem books and get to work! Its a fun, if slightly taxing science.

Next we are going to discuss safety.

>MOTHERFUCKING SAFETY! ****************

Take a good look at your hands. I want you to admire them for a moment. The dexterity of the fingers, the sensitivity of the tips and the palms. Trace the muscles in each with your other hand, noticing how the ones in your fapping hand seem a little bit bigger and meatier. Think of all the wonderful things you use them for - pulling a trigger, petting a kitty, warming your girlfriend up for sexytimes, pimp-slapping a distinguished urban gentleman, holding your slippery dragon dildo.

Do you want to keep those hands? Then read this section very fucking carefully.

>There is nothing about explosives that can't kill you dead as a hammer. If you're lucky, your first mistake will ONLY blow your fappers off and you'll live to Captain Hook another day.

Lets look at just the basic risks we're dealing with in making explosives.

>You're using concentrated ACID in large quantities. It is powerful enough to dissolve your flesh to the bone in seconds.
>Your reactions are happening in glass vessels that make wonderfully huge clouds of razor-sharp shrapnel if they burst.
>Many of the reactions produce volumes of incredibly poisonous gasses - more than the merest whiff will melt your lungs into taffy and there's no fixing you.
>Reactions can go out of control very VERY quickly if you don't maintain precise control of temperatures and chemical addition rates. This is referred to as "runaway." Think of it like the word "meltdown" if the thread were about nuclear reactors and you have an idea how bad that is.
>The explosives themselves can be set off by the tiniest spark of static electricity, jostling them too hard, direct sunlight, indirect heat, leaving chemical residue in them (not washing them enough), leaving acid residue on them, accidentally letting them come in contact with a whole host of metal containers, chemical residues, or even body fluids.
>Many of the materials and explosives are highly toxic themselves, causing everything from acute kidney failure to brain cancer depending on how you expose yourself to them. Yum!

One mistake, you're fucking dead. End of story, end of thread. Savvy?

So how do we, as responsible amateur chemists, negate and mitigate the possibilities for catastrophe?

>BY FOLLOWING GOOD LAB PROCEDURE LIKE IT WAS HANDED TO US BY THE EMPEROR HIMSELF.

Here's is the Center for Disease Control's Chemistry Lab Safety Manual.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2007-107/pdfs/2007-107.pdf

Download it and FUCKING READ IT. Then read it again. Look down at your fapping hand. Did you read and understand all of it? Look at your hand again. Are you SURE?

Some general rules from my own playbook:

>Thoroughly clean and air-dry all glassware and tools before the experiment, even if you already cleaned them before.
>Use fresh glassware for every step of a chemical process. Clean all dirty glassware when you're totally finished - never try to clean and reuse on the fly.
>Keep a can of anti-static spray handy. Apply it to yourself and your work area liberally before you start, and give yourself a freshening spritz (from a safe distance from the chemicals) about halfway through the experiment.
>Know the chemicals you're working with (for instance, picric acid will EXPLODE if you put it in a container with even trace amounts of copper). Or if it touches copper. Or if copper looks at it funny. Picric acid only tolerates PURE aluminum and glass. DO YOUR HOMEWORK. Google "materials safety data sheet" for every chemical you're using and making and read them before you ever start.
>Use an electric hotplate for heating chemicals. NEVER GAS. Use a double boiler for heating materials, NEVER APPLY DIRECT HEAT. NEVER HAVE AN OPEN FLAME EVEN IN THE SAME BUILDING. That means kill pilot lights on your appliances too.
>Use the restroom and eat a small snack an hour before you start working. No food or bathroom breaks while chemicals are reacting, and some reactions take a while.
>Wear eyeglasses at a minimum and a full transparent face shield if possible.
>Do you own any soft body armor, OPERATOR? Then wear it.
>LONG SLEEVES. Buy an actual labcoat preferably - they're not expensive and are made the way they are for reasons.
>Put on nitrile gloves, and then heavy rubber dishwashing gloves on top of that.
>Ventilate the FUCK out of your lab area. All windows and doors open and multiple fans pushing a through-current of air. If possible have your work area right below an open window with a box fan sucking out fumes at full blast.
>TWO fire extinguishers - both chemical type. One at the table and one by the exit.
>A "dump vat" consisting of a 3 or 4 gallon plastic tub full of cold water and ice. If a reaction goes runaway you have about max 4 seconds to dump it into the vat before it goes full Chernobyl on your ass.
>Keep your cell phone out and handy, with 9-1-1 on speed dial.

If you follow these rules and others, you can have fun with this stuff and keep all your digits intact. Even if you have an accident, the rules of lab safety mean the damage can be mitigated to the greatest extent possible. A heart attack and dump vat full of frothing acid eating a hole in the floor isn't as bad as blowing your chest cavity apart and burning your house down or accidentally huffing a face full of Phosgene.

Safety first, mah niggaz.
>> No. 2714 ID: 8c1454
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2714
Terms and common basic procedures.

This is a glossary of specific terms that you will need to know.

>Recrystallization - The act of dissolving a material in a weak solvent and then dumping it quickly ("crashing it") into water, usually ice cold water, to cause the crystals of material to dissolve and reform. This is how you purify most explosives - the water dilutes and sweeps away any dangerous contaminants, separating them from the crystals which you then filter out. MAY BE REQUIRED SEVERAL TIMES PER BATCH.

>Washing - The act of flushing a material with large amounts of water to remove foreign particles and impurities.

>Neutralization - The act of washing a material with a solution of water and (typically) 1-5% sodium bicarbonate (baking soda). This neutralizes any remaining traces of acid in the material, purifying it. Acid residues can make an explosive spontaneously ignite hours or even days later. MAY BE REQUIRED SEVERAL TIMES PER BATCH.

>Mixing acids - The act of mixing acids with water or with other acids. Remember the rule - "Adding acid to watah? That's just like you aughta! Adding water to acid? Your dick will go flaccid!" When mixing two acids or adding acid to water you do it in TINY amounts, drop by drop unless specified otherwise. Unless you don't like your skin, or face, or eyes, or life. The only thing that sucks more than getting splashed by acid is getting splashed by frothing, foaming, BOILING acid because your dumb ass mixed them too quickly and they reacted.

>Nitration - A chemical reaction that attaches Nitro groups (NO3) to a molecule. The most common way of creating molecular explosives and the way most popular explosives are made.

>Dehydration - The chemical removal of water from a material during a reaction, usually by the presence of sulfuric acid. H2SO4 absorbs water on a molecular scale. Important for nitration reactions, because lots of molecular water is released during most nitrations. If you don't get it out of the way via dehydration the water molecules will bond to your shit and block the reaction. This is why you usually see sulfuric and nitric acid used together - the latter nitrates while the former gets rid of the water.

>Hydration - The bonding of water molecules to a molecular fuel. Happens naturally if you don't use sulfuric acid or something similar during a nitration. Makes the resulting material a completely useless dud.

>Distillation - The act of separating a chemical from a mixture by exploiting their different boiling points. The temperature of a flask is kept just above the boiling point of the desired material, and resulting vapor is collected and condensed, recovering that material only. Used for producing nitric acid and purifying sulfuric acid.

>In-situ nitration - The act of combining lots of sulfuric acid, an organic nitrate (like ammonium nitrate or potassium nitrate) and a material to be nitrated in the same container. The H2SO4 and the nitrate react to form nitric acid in the same vessel, with enough H2SO4 left to perform dehydration as well. Works for ETN and certain other materials. Very simple and easy to do, but not widely applicable.

Stoichiometric - A term roughly meaning "chemically balanced" for a particular combination. If you have exactly enough of material A to combine with material B and no bits left over, they are in stoichiometric amounts. For instance, Ammonium nitrate generates excess oxygen when it detonates. TNT actually generates less oxygen than it needs to FULLY combust. If you add just enough AN to your TNT so that the extra oxygen from the AN detonating is exactly the required amount to combust ALL the detonating TNT, then they are said to be present in stoichiometric amounts.

>Oxygen Balance - The amount of molecular oxygen present in a material relative the the amount fully required to combust its fuel molecules. Usually described as a percentage. Ammonium nitrate has a "positive" oxygen balance of 20% (releases 20% more oxygen than it needs), where as R-Salts has a "negative" oxygen balance of 55% (releases less oxygen than it needs, so it only combusts partially). Oxygen balance as close to 100% as possible is highly desirable in an explosive composition.

>Temperature window - Without boring you going into definitions of "average kinetic energy of molecules", you need to know that most reactions have to occur within certain temperature boundaries. Too cold and you might get some completely different, useless reaction. Too hot and it might be useless or it will probably just explode in your face. LITERALLY. Since most reactions create heat, sometimes LOTS OF HEAT, being able to balance the temperature of the reaction by controlling chemical addition rates, stirring rates, and cooling or heating equipment to keep it in the required window is one of the chemist's most valuable skills. In fact it might be the MOST valuable skill.
>> No. 2724 ID: 8c1454
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2724
As many of you will be aware from my past rants, I despise the little "Anarchist Cookbook" kewlkidz that populate the internet. If you're wondering why I'm posting so much background and not delving into "recipes" is because an OPERATOR is a professional. If one wants to educate themselves in the art of explosives, then they need to approach it from a professional standpoint - legal, safe, sane, and careful.

Assuming you've read my posts above and are prepared to mind those four principles as your watchwords, let us now look at the reactions that can create explosives.

>Nitration

This is the big one. Most industrial explosives are created by combining some organic fuel into a chemical "nitro-compound" via the bonding of nitro groups to it. "Nitro" or "nitrate" anywhere in a chemical name is one of those keywords that should tell you immediately that you're dealing with a potential explosive material.

The key chemical used in the nitration of a material is concentrated Nitric Acid. Without boring you too much, the mechanic involves the reaction of the acid to create the "nitronium ion" that will bond to many organic chemicals. If the bond links to an oxygen atom in the material you get a nitrate, and if it bonds to a carbon atom you get a nitro-compound. The latter is usually, but not always, the more useful explosive, because the breaking of the carbon=nitrogen bond and subsequent liberation of the oxygen atoms generates a LOT of energy.

>Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive strong mineral acid. The pure compound is colorless, but older samples tend to acquire a yellow cast due to the accumulation of oxides of nitrogen. Most commercially available nitric acid has a concentration of 68%. When the solution contains more than 86% HNO3, it is referred to as fuming nitric acid. Depending on the amount of nitrogen dioxide present, fuming nitric acid is further characterized as white fuming nitric acid or red fuming nitric acid, at concentrations above 95%. Nitric acid is also commonly used as a strong oxidizing agent.

Nitric acid is one of those essential precursor chemicals that you will have to manufacture to make almost any useful explosive. It is restricted and expensive to purchase, but is fortunately very easy to make, even in significant quantities. In fact, if you know what you're doing, you can conjure significant amounts of it literally out of thin air.

In a nitration reaction, an organic material like the sugar-alcohol erythritol, is reacted with nitric acid. The reaction vessel also contains sulfuric acid to absorb the latent water the reaction produces. The reaction must take place within a narrow temperature window, which is difficult because nitration reactions generate lots of heat as the molecules break down and rearrange. The trick to nitration is to use a combination of stirring and cooling equipment to negate the heat generated by the addition of the material - adding the latter at a precise rate that will keep the temperature stable. Once all the material has been added and reacted, the acid mixture is poured into cold water and the crystals of crude erythritol tetranitrate, or ETN, are filtered out, washed, neutralized, recrystallized two or three times by dissolving in methyl alcohol, and dried to produce a final, useful product.

>Peroxidation Reactions

Some explosives, most notably the organic peroxide family, can be produced by a reaction that bonds a peroxide molecule to it.

>Hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD) is a high explosive organic compound, first synthesised in 1885 by Legler. The theorised structure lent itself well to acting as an initiating, or primary explosive. While still quite sensitive to shock and friction, it was relatively stable compared to other initiating explosives of the time, such as mercury fulminate, and proved to be relatively inexpensive and easy to synthesise. As such, it was quickly taken up as a primary explosive in mining applications. However, it has since been superseded by even more stable compounds such as tetryl. HMTD may be prepared by the reaction of an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide and hexamine in the presence of citric acid.

HMTD is the only organic peroxide you should EVER consider making. There are others, but they range from suicidal to omnicidal in terms of safety. Acetone Peroxide, as one example is a common Anarchist Cookbook type explosive that is so dangerous even middle eastern terrorists have learned never to touch the stuff. HMTD is about on par with the earliest primary explosive compounds, and has found some successful use in amateur detonators if handled with great care.

For our practical purposes we will be sticking chiefly to these two types of reactions. There are certain others that come into play like reduction reactions and we may look at those later on a case-by-case basis.
>> No. 2738 ID: de37e8
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2738
Interesting topic, am patiently awaiting more.

As for glassware and such the laboratory equipment section on opticsplanet seems decent, would like to hear if others have recommendations on other online stores to use/avoid.

Also I recall that EOD Q&A thread had some info but I never saved it and cannot find the link. I'm sure SOMEONE has an archived copy or screencaps to put on /z/ or something.

Right?


Right??!?
>> No. 2739 ID: fc6c47
>>2738
I don't have an archive of it, you you can still find the cached page here: http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:ivZ7uzLGKzkJ:m.operatorchan.org/w/res/2906.html+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us

Get it while you can.
>> No. 2740 ID: 8c1454
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2740
Glassware and chemicals

Since were only looking at lab experiments at the moment, the first thing you need to work with these wonders of modern chemistry is a modern chemistry set - glassware.

There are many good sources online, but I can give you an overview of what you're going to need for these experiments.

>A double boiler can be made by pouring a layer of oval glass beads into a stainless steel pot. Just enough to loosely cover the bottom. This prevents direct heat from reaching a beaker placed on top. Don't use marbles, as your beaker might roll around on them.

>An ice bath for cooling can be made the same way as the double boiler, except it is filled with a mixture of water, crushed ice, and alcohol. For very low temperatures, you can use "redneck liquid nitrogen", which is dry ice and alcohol.

>A single burner electric hotplate can be purchased from most houseware supply stores like Wal Mart. Get a good quality one - you don't want sparks from cheap insulation.

Go to a site like:

http://unitednuclear.com/index.php?main_page=index&cPath=25_26

And order the following.

>Distillation apparatus - 500ml
>5 piece beaker set (get TWO)
>5 piece Erlenmeyer flask set
>Separatory funnels (get TWO)
>Glass funnels (get FIVE)
>Half a dozen medium test tubes
>Half a dozen pipettes
>Half a dozen glass stirring rods
>5 piece Barnes bottle set with tray
>Mortar and pestle
>A trio of wash bottles (one for water, one for alcohol, one for neutralizing solution)

You will also need:

>Litmus paper - LOTS OF IT. You will be testing for acidity very frequently. Only skimp on this if you want to fucking die.
>Filter paper - LOTS OF IT. You do NOT reuse filter paper. A clean sheet every time is the name of the game.
>Two pairs of tongs for holding beakers.
>Three or four good quality small thermometers with clips to hold them in a beaker.
>A bottle washer.
>Lab cleaning solvent for cleaning glassware. You'll use a lot of this - buy a gallon or two.
>Lots of methanol (HEET brand, from the auto store - buy several) and ethanol (Everclear - buy the gallon jug from a liquor store) for washing chemicals and dissolving material.

That covers equipment. Now I'm going to source you the two most basic chemicals that you will need to begin: Concentrated sulfuric acid and potassium nitrate

>Concentrated sulfuric acid

You can actually buy this over the counter from most big hardware stores. It is used as drain unclogger, and can be found at 90% purity under the brand names Rooto and Liquid Lightning at most Lowes and Home Depot stores. They will say somewhere on the bottle "sulfuric acid". Don't get these mixed up with the alkali versions of the same product, which use concentrated lye. The mixup is one you'll only live to make once. Should run you about seven bucks for a quart of it. Buy as much as you can - you'll use this shit for EVERTHING, and rarely in small amounts. It cannot be recycled.

>Potassium nitrate

You can buy this from any Ace Hardware store. They sell it in .5lb, 1lb, and 1.5lb jugs under the brand "Hi-Yield Stump Remover." According to the materials safety data sheet for Hi Yield, the contents are 98% pure potassium nitrate.

The third chemical you want to stockpile in addition to these two is a bit more esoteric, but oh so useful: Hexamine. You're probly not going to find hexamine for sale OTC, since it is only used for one thing commercially - Esbit fuel tablets for those little pocket camp stoves are 80% pure hexamine. These are easily restricted - BUY AS MANY AS YOU CAN.

http://www.rei.com/product/653344/esbit-solid-fuel-tablets?preferredSku=6533440019&cm_mmc=cse_froogle-_-pla-_-product-_-6533440019&mr:referralID=8d8416d3-7a56-11e2-97b3-001b2166becc

Order this shit by the case. Having 100 lbs in your shed still isn't enough. Hexamine is like crack for home chemists - you can use it for many different things, ESPECIALLY explosives, and it is almost totally unavailable commercially. These little fuel blocks are your only window and could be shut off at any time.

You have your grocery list, OPERATORs. So hop to shopping!
>> No. 2741 ID: 91d331
>>2738
>>/z/1160

Here ya go.
>> No. 2743 ID: 184ea6
>>2741
Thanks! That was a neat read! You may want to re-upload w/o your trip entered, not sure how much you guys care about it though.

I don't mean to step on any toes or get ahead of the thread, but will there any discussion on the physics (terms such as brisance and det. velocity, and their relevance/importance?). Lots of respect for your individual research AM; would you have any advice for someone who'd enjoy working in this area (in school for Mech. Eng. at the moment). Or just general advice for independent studying? I love learning new stuff (specifically physics/chemistry/material science and their application). Sorry for distractions/tangents, thanks for this thread!
>> No. 2745 ID: 8c1454
>>2743

We're going to cover everything at some point - right down to design of detonators, boosters, cavity resonance, and wave shapers. I'm starting with the chemistry because to make explosives you need chemistry, and to fiddle with the physics you need the explosives.

>would you have any advice for someone who'd enjoy working in this area (in school for Mech. Eng. at the moment

Take a minor in organic chemistry (seriously), then look at a specialized associates degree in explosives use. Many universities offer courses in explosives engineering, especially in the fields of mining and demolition. As far as independent study, STAY AWAY from the so called "bomb making" books you'll find online - they vary from "plausible but lacking critical info" to "lol we'll totally get dudes killed guize!". I'll be dumping gratuitous amounts of professional references as the thread goes on, and many of them will point you to other studies and sources you can look at. Once you have a solid grasp of the basics, then apply for the ATF license and just experiment!

They key in learning the material is this:

>NEVER trust a singular source. Find a dozen sources, cross-reference them for details, then look at the situation from your Chemistry education and determine what is REALLY going on and build your own plan of attack.

Don't trust recipes. Not even the ones I will be posting. Make sure you know what is happening in the experiment from the standpoint of a chemist, don't rely on following some guide.
>> No. 2746 ID: dcc0c8
>>2740
>Hexamine

Both of my local surplus stores stock these in od wrappers. 3"x2"x1/2" bars .50/pair wrapped together. They have an nsn on the wrapper. I bought a metric shitton of them a few months ago so check around operators.
>> No. 2749 ID: de37e8
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2749
>>2741
Much appreciated
>> No. 2750 ID: 8c1454
  Baby Steps - The production of Nitric Acid

Time for our first experiment discussion, OPERATORs.

This ine is a great place to start because, in most areas, you will not need any sort of license to do it. We're going to be making the most important precursor to a modern explosive: Ruby red, delicious, fuming nitric acid!

Making nitric acid is the reason you had the 500ml distillation apparatus on your shopping list. The easiest way to make it is to combine concentrated sulfuric acid with a metal nitrate, like that potassium nitrate you've been stockpiling. The more pure the chemicals you use, the better the nitric acid you get.

The video gives an overview of three different processes to familiarize you with the chemistry involved, but the short recipe is this:

>Set up your distillation apparatus above your hot water bath, with a glass beaker under the condenser to collect your nitric acid.

>Add 1 part by volume of potassium nitrate (98%) to your distillation flask. SLOWLY, CAREFULLY pour in 2 parts by volume of your concentrated sulfuric acid. and shake the flask very gently to mix. Connect the flask to the distillation setup and make sure the connections are good.

>Turn on the hotplate, and VERY SLOWLY (should take about 30 minutes) increase the temperature until you start to see reddish yellow fumes coming out of the flask and into the condenser. Keep the temperature constant at this point, and you will start to see pure nitric acid collecting in the condenser and dripping into your beaker.

>Allow the reaction to continue until the fumes turn white. White fumes mean that only sulfuric acid is boiling, and you've used up all the nitrates.

>Allow the unit to cool a bit, then remove the flask from the distillation apparatus, add more potassium nitrate and sulfuric acid to top it off, reconnect and repeat the process.

>Try to make at least 1 liter at a sitting. This will take a few hours, but makes a great experiment to repeat on weekends. Stockpile the nitric acid you produce this way in good quality glass jugs WITH GLASS STOPPERS. Nitric acid WILL eat through nearly ANY form of plastic or rubber, and that means so do the fumes!

You can use the other methods described in the video for making dilute nitric acid for simple, cheap experimentation - but the stuff you distill from sulfuric acid this way is "weapons grade." It is precious as gold, so never waste it and store as much as you can make in a cool, dry place in the DARK. Sunlight can break it down.
>> No. 2751 ID: 8c1454
  >>2750

Also, to obtain the hydrochloric acid the video author uses in his first two examples, you can buy it from any hardware store. It is called Muriatic Acid and is used for cleaning concrete. The stuff at Wal Mart near the paint department comes in gallon jugs and is about 37% concentration, but you can sometimes find it up to 70% at places like Home Depot.

Other resources for making nitric via chemicals:

See embed.
Improvised Munitions Handbook Vol. 3 - Section 4.1
>> No. 2752 ID: 8c1454
  Another excellent, professional video on distillation.
>> No. 2753 ID: f53ca2
>>2751
You can also get high concentration muriatic acid from your local pool supply store by the case for cheap. 37% is kinda the limit in terms of concentration. In order to concentrate it any higher (40%) requires containing it under pressure and below 30C. So you wont find muriatic acid in a 70% concentration outside of a lab setting. That acid is most likely phosphoric acid which is used commercially as a rust converter/stripper.

I know you've mentioned finding many sources before using any information, and I'm not an expert or an amateur at making nitric acid but I don't want to see anyone using the wrong acid and hurting themselves.
>> No. 2757 ID: 8c1454
>>2753

The 70% stuff can be found as "concentrated muriatic acid". If the instructions tell you to dilute it before using it for cleaning its a good bet thats what it is.

Still damned good advice though. ALWAYS check the MSDS (look up the brand and product from your smartphone) and make sure before you mess with it.
>> No. 2804 ID: afafb0
>>2757

Any idea what "safer muriatic acid" is? Just a lower concentration?
>> No. 2805 ID: e76043
File 136178020821.gif - (2.44MB , 480x360 , 1352615584789.gif )
2805
What's the best place to get ammonium nitrate from? I've got nitromethane, dentared alcohol and all the pots and pans I need to cook RDX at home, but finding ammonium nitrate is a real pain in the cunt. None of the garden centers/home improvement places around here have it.
>> No. 2806 ID: a4d0e8
>>2805

RDX requires acetic anhydride. Anticipate a friendly knock on the door from the DEA. Or try PETN instead, easier stuff to get(the PE is a little pricey if it not by mtons).
>> No. 2807 ID: b0c576
>>2805

I used to work at a Lowe's. The availability fluctuates, just like ammo, and when they have it, they don't advertise it. Most employees don't even know that the store sells it. (The people in charge know what it can be used for, and they don't want everyone buying it, because they don't want to get shit on by the media and regulated by the govt. because some idiot accidentally his entire neighborhood...) Go to a bunch of stores, ask the managers if they have any in stock. You don't need to tell them what you need it for. If they ask, just tell them you're starting a garden. You might be surprised.
>> No. 2808 ID: e76043
File 136178417620.gif - (535.98KB , 391x295 , 1352616249706.gif )
2808
>>2806
I've made PETN before but I don't like doing it since it takes fucking forever to get a usable amount, and the chance of a thermal runaway is too high for my tastes.

>>2807
I called a few around here and told them I needed it for renitrating some land but none of them had it. I should probably try a more rural area though, my understanding is the biggest users are farms.
>> No. 2811 ID: bffb78
>>2804
Safer is watered down to about 25% at that level it's considered an irritant rather than a corrosive. Muriatic acid evaporates quickly when agitated or heated (38% has a boiling point of 48C).

An old opened bottle sitting in the garage will drop concentration quickly. I've used some old acid to balance PH and an entire gallon wouldn't drop the PH more than .1 (a quarter gallon of fresh 38% dropped it .3). So if you buy any muriatic acid don't open it until you're ready to use it.
>> No. 2817 ID: 5b9651
>>2806

RDX only requires AAH if you're making it from raw paraformaldehyde and not starting from Hexamine (and what did we say about Hexamine? Go order another 50 lbs of it for forgetting. Right now.)

R-Salts is a better choice than RDX anyway for a host of reasons, but we'll be covering that later.

If you really want AN, quit fucking around playing secret squirrel like some teenage niggerbomber and just order a pound or three of the shit like a normal human being: You're a scientist, not a fucking terrorist. So act like it. Have some self respect.

http://scienceforyou.net/pyrotechnic-supplies/oxidizers/
>> No. 2820 ID: 63d5a1
File 136184269629.gif - (2.67MB , 400x225 , implying.gif )
2820
>>2817
>You're a scientist, not a fucking terrorist.
>> No. 2877 ID: 8c1454
File 136210969837.jpg - (79.00KB , 600x800 , nitroglycerin.jpg )
2877
Alright OPERATORs. Now that you've stockpiled some basic materials and cooked up a litre or two of delicious concentrated nitric acid in your distillation apparatus, we're going to look at performing a basic nitration reaction.

Since we're all about history, we're going to start with one of the oldest and most useful of them all - nitroglycerine.

You can obtain glycerine at many pharmacies, like your local Rite-Aid or Walgreens. Make sure it is PURE glycerine, with no perfumes or other chemicals listed on the ingredients label. It will some in a small bottle of about 8oz, and cost around seven bucks.

For this reaction you will need:

>Sulfuric acid
>Nitric acid
>Glycerine
>4% baking soda/water solution for neutralizing.
>A thick saltwater solution for the washing step.
>TWO Ice baths, the reaction will not likely finish before the first melts.
>Beakers
>Separatory funnel
>Litmus paper

>Nitroglcerine
>Chemical formula C3H5N3O9
>Velocity of Detonation - 7700 meters/second
>Relative explosive power - High
>Sensitivity - VERY HIGH, handle with great care. Explodes from sudden shock or friction, especially sensitive when heated or partially frozen. Keep cool, dry, and away from heat, flame, and strong sunlight.

>Nitroglycerin was first prepared by a scientist named A. Sobrero around 1847 where it was used as a medicine. It was then mass produced by the great scientist Alfred Nobel in 1864 when he developed improvements on its synthesis and a method of detonating it. The devastation nitroglycerin caused on both the battlefield and the factory earned Nobel the title "Merchant of Death." Nobel was haunted by the lives nitroglycerin claimed so he created the Nobel Peace Prize to honor champions of peace, and later, supreme accomplishments in science. His exposure to nitroglycerin gave him constant agonizing headaches, and ironically he took nitro pills for a heart condition later in life. Nitroglycerin remains in use as a medicine, but not for explosives. Nitroglycerin is a very unstable high explosive compound.

The reaction posted below is courtesy of Megalomania of Roguesci fame - undoubtedly one of the most prolific and skilled amateur chemists of the current generation.

>Prepare a mixture of 200 mL of 98-100% nitric acid and 300 mL of 98-100% sulfuric acid by slowly adding one to the other in a 1000-mL beaker.

>Place the beaker into a salt-ice bath during the mixing so it may cool, allow the temperature to drop below 10 °C after mixing. You can keep the cold acid in the salt-ice bath. Prepare a fresh salt-ice bath on standby.

>While stirring gently with a glass stirring rod held in a gloved hand, VERY slowly add drop by drop 112 mL of glycerol that has been previously cooled to 15 °C.

>CAREFULLY monitor the temperature of the reaction at all times, the temperature must stay below 20 °C, and preferably below 15 °C for extra safety. If at any time the temperature goes near this, stop adding glycerin until it cools. You can use the rate of addition to control the temperature. If the temperature ever rises above 20 °C the reaction is ruined as no more nitro will be made and you are in great danger of the existing nitro detonating.

>If the temperature goes above 30 °C, there is a sudden rise in temperature, or a red gas is noticed, DUMP IT INTO COLD WATER IMMEDIATELY!. Keep a dump bucket of ice water on hand for this task.

>After adding all of the glycerin, allow the temperature to drop to 15 °C and sit for 15 minutes. Very carefully pour the reaction mix into a large beaker containing an equal volume of room temperature water. Add this mix to a separatory funnel and allow the nitroglycerin to settle out, it will form a layer on the bottom of the funnel. Carefully drain this layer out and discard the waste acids left over.

>Place the crude nitro back into a clean separatory funnel and add plenty of 38-45 °C water, mix gently with a glass stirring rod, then separate again - this is how nitro is washed. Wash the nitro again in this manner, then wash it an additional time with a warm 4% sodium carbonate (baking soda) solution. Wash with warm water three more times. Give it a final wash of concentrated sodium chloride (table salt) solution, and let it sit one day before separating the layers using your separation funnel. Separate and check the nitro for acidity with litmus paper. If it is still acidic keep washing. It must be neutral or it will explode.

>One unit of glycerine will yield about 2.5 units of nitro. Beware, unprotected exposure to nitroglycerine will cause severe headaches. Keep it cool, the warmer it is the more sensitive it is to detonation. Frozen nitro can not be detonated therefore it is stable BUT partially frozen nitro is extra sensitive! Although nitroglycerin is very dangerous when confined, it is merely flammable when spread out in the open air.
>> No. 2883 ID: 5b9651
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So why did we choose to start with Nirtoglycerine, since that all sounds rather complicated? A few reasons.

>The purpose of this thread is to build knowledge and skill. The chemist must become familiar with every step of the production process for these chemicals, and nitro uses a good variety of the most common processes. If you can make nitro, you can make almost anything else that will come down and line, and the various procedures will seem very familiar to you.

>The process is broken down into several distinct steps, each with clear beginning and ending points, allowing the OPERATOR to progress through the reaction while keeping an eye on the details more easily.

>It only requires three basic chemicals, one of which you easily made and two of which are easily acquired over the counter.

>It requires very stringent temperature control, but if the reaction runs away, nitro is a bit more forgiving on being poured into your dump bucket (BEWARE THE FUMES THOUGH - VERY TOXIC!). This allows you to work on your most important skill - keeping that reaction temperature where it needs to be. If you can manage nitro, you can manage anything else that you're likely to ever make.

>The resultant product, held in sub-millilitre amounts, can teach you the basics of handling a finished explosive. Which will be covered in the next step.

>The finished nitroglycerine is easily disposed of. You can carefully wash it down a drain, burn it in the open, or blow it up to get rid of it. It is relatively low toxicity as long as you don't breathe a lot of its fumes or let it sit on your skin.
>> No. 2901 ID: 8c1454
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Since we've discussed how to make our first little batch of an energetic material, it is time we cover the basics of safety in how you store and handle it. Here are some simple rules to follow, as the professional you are:

>Before handling an explosive of any kind, give yourself a spritz of anti-static spray and WASH YOUR HANDS to avoid contamination.

>NEVER handle an explosive with bare hands. Many of the toxic elements in them can be absorbed through the skin.

>Avoid handling or opening raw explosive material in a confined area, many of them give off small amounts of potentially harmful fumes. Short exposures (a minute or two) are usually okay, but don't be cavalier about it. Keep your face away when opening a container of explosive.

>Whenever possible, AVOID storing an explosive in a brittle container. The explosion risk that we generally run is bad enough, do NOT add the risk of shrapnel to the mix! HDPE plastic containers or wax paper wrapping are generally your best option, but CLEAN BOTTLES THOROUGHLY before use, preferably several times, to remove all possible trace contaminants! NEVER use screw-on caps! NEVER get explosive on the rim of the bottle! If you do, clean the neck inside and out VERY CAREFULLY before capping or corking.

>Your best friend when carrying a sensitive explosive a short distance, is DISTANCE. Drill a hole in the end of a yardstick and hang a small cloth "hobo bag" from the end of it. Place the explosive in the bag and carry it by the other end of the yardstick. When you get where you're going, set the stick down and carefully remove the explosive from the bag. Handle test tubes and small beakers of explosive using tongs, not bare hands. Carry detonators by the far ends of the fuse or electric leads and held at arms length, avoid touching the detonator body itself if at all possible. Always wear your gloves, soft armor, and eye protection. ALWAYS.

>For more secure transport as in a vehicle, get a large, soft plastic toolbox and fill it half full with very slightly moistened sawdust. Place the small container of explosives in the center of the box, fill the remainder of the box with more sawdust so that it completely surrounds the explosive. Close the lid of the box and give it a spritz of anti-static spray. Keep the box as far from the occupants of the vehicle as possible, such as in the trunk or inside a truck toolbox. Secure it TIGHTLY so it doesn't shift, move, or rattle. DRIVE SAFELY!

>Store explosives in your approved magazine. This can be made by placing them inside a small safe that is surrounded by sand-filled cinderblocks on all four sides to a height of twice the safe's, with an open top. If an explosion occurs, the blast will be directed straight up, safely. Keep the magazine at least 100 feet from the nearest occupied building. FOLLOW ALL LAWS AND REGULATIONS.

>Never transport more than three detonators to a container. Never handle more than one detonator at a time. NEVER expose detonators to heat, bright sunlight, crushing weight, or vibration. ALWAYS use anti-static spray before handling detonators. ALWAYS twist the leads of an electric detonator together after you make it, to prevent ambient electromagnetic radiation from generating a current in the wires. Only untwist them immediately before use. USE LONG FUSES for fused detonators!

This has been a public safety announcement.
>> No. 2929 ID: 5b9651
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ETN is a very useful explosive with a simple synthesis. For those who have read up a bit on military munitions, you have probably heard of an explosive called PETN - PENTAerythritol tentranitrate. PETN is a very powerful, pretty stable explosive that is the main ingredient in SEMTEX and most older Russian ordnance. It is also heavily used for shaped charges in the form of Pentolite, a 50/50 mix of PETN and TNT. PETN is made by the niration of a chemical called Pentaerythritol.

ETN is made by the nitration of Erythritol, a "sugar-alcohol" that comes in the form of granulated crystals used as a low-cal sweetener. It has a structure very similar to PETN, with similar melting points and detonation sensitivity, and similar power. In recent years with the FDA approval of the sale of Erythritol on the open market as a food product, it has become a popular and easy to make "lab explosive." Its sensitivity falls into a very useful range - you can phlegmatize it (add a binder to make it less sensitive) by gently mixing it with ~10% parts by weight of paraffin wax or silicone oil and use it as a secondary or bulk explosive by itself, , or you can use it raw and pressed into a tube with aluminum foil as a primary explosive. It can be mixed with TNT to form an analogue of Pentolite. Its power can vary widely depending on how you confine it and how it is pressed. It is if very low toxicity, is brisant, has a high detonation velocity (~7800m/s at 1.57g/cc) and has a good shelf life if neutralized and stabilized carefully.

ETN is a very useful explosive with two drawbacks. The raw material Erythritol is not widely available commercially, and is moderately expensive. Some health food stores will stock or order it, but at around $10 a pound it isn't especially cheap. A better bet would be to contact a wholesaler and try to order it in 20lb bulk bags for reprocessing, or look for a discount vendor online. You can find the latter here:

http://www.swansonvitamins.com/now-foods-erythritol-pure-natural-sweetener-1-lb-pwdr?SourceCode=INTL405&CAWELAID=374140210&cagpspn=pla&gclid=CJ2GwOiT4bUCFQwFnQodA38ANQ

The other drawback is that yields of the reaction are "self-limiting". Meaning that you cannot scale the batch to make more of it. To produce a lot of it, you either need a "continuous flow" nitration process which has yet to be devised, or you need to produce several small batches at once and combine the yields. It is easy to make, but not easy to scale up to large quantities.

ETN is made by an "in-situ" nitration reaction. If you were paying attention to the distilling of nitric acid in the earlier posts, you have probably realized that, in that process, it is the reaction of sulfuric acid with the nitrate salt that produces the nitric acid. All you are doing is distilling it to separate that nitric acid out. Ergo, any time you combine sulfuric acid and a nitrate, nitric acid is produced in the mix. For some chemicals that don't require the nitric acid to be highly concentrated, you can simply mix the sulfuric acid, nitrate salt, and desired chemical together in the same beaker and hold it at the proper temperature with cooling and stirring to complete the reaction. Erythritol is fortunately one of those chemicals.

ETN can be produced in small batches by the following process, established from researching several sources of my own:

>Sulfuric Acid
>Potassium nitrate (98%)
>Erythritol (food grade)
>Urea solution (.5%)
>Neutralizing solution (5%)
>alcohol (pure)
>Ice bath
>Mortar and Pestle
>Refrigerator
>Glass stirring rod
>A very strong stainless steel spoon for stirring. Glass will not work at the last part of the reaction. The solution turns VERY THICK, like wet cement, during the reaction. It will snap a glass rod like nothing if you try to stir it.
>OPTIONAL - A small amount of dilute nitric acid, not the good stuff.

PROCEDURE:

>Place 100ml of sulfuric into a medium glass beaker and place it in the freezer. Chill it to -10C.

>Meanwhile place 60 grams of potassium nitrate in a mortar and pestle and grind it VERY fine. It should be close to the consistency of face powder. Set it aside. and clean and mortar and pestle thoroughly.

>Now place 20 grams of Erythritol in the clean mortar and pestle and grind it very fine. Set it aside.

>Prepare your ice bath, and set aside a large beaker or other container with about ~400ml of water for later.

>Remove the chilled sulfuric from the freezer and place the beaker in the ice bath. VERY SLOWLY start adding the finely ground potassium nitrate, stirring well and constantly. MONITOR THE TEMPERATURE CLOSELY. Do not let it exceed 15C. Minding your temperature, continue the addition and stir vigorously until all of the nitrate is dissolved and you can no longer see any nitrate salt as you stir. KEEP THE TEMP BELOW 15C AT ALL TIMES.

>Top off the ice bath with more crushed ice and salt if necessary, and then VERY CAREFULLY start adding the erythritol to the cold acid mix. Add about a half-gram at a time and stir very well. [b]DO NOT ALLOW THE TEMPERATURE AT ANY POINT TO EXCEED 15 DEGREES CELSIUS!]/b] A temperature in the 5C range is ideal.

>Once all the erythritol is added, keep the mix below 15C and continue stirring as the nitration reaction occurs. Stir it for about one minute at a time, every 5 minutes, for one hour. Again, never let the temperature rise above 15C. Top off the ice bath as necessary to ensure control of the temperature. The mix will become EXTREMELY thick and creamy, like frozen ice cream or wet concrete. Switch to your stainless steel stirring tool when it gets thick. If you have some dilute nitric acid, you can add a few ml to the reaction, drop by drop, to thin it out and make stirring a bit easier.

>After the mix has reacted for the specified hour, remove it from the ice bath and SLOWLY, CAREFULLY pour it into the large beaker holding ~400ml of water that you prepared at the start. A large white cloud will appear in the water. This cloud is made of crystals of crude ETN explosive.

>Let the contents of the beaker settle for 3 or 4 minutes, then slowly pour it through a glass funnel lined with filter paper to collect the ETN crystals. Transfer the crystals to fresh filter paper and wash them twice with cold water from your wash bottle first, then wash them with the neutralizing solution.

>Recrystallize the ETN by adding the crystals to a beaker of warm alcohol and stirring until they all dissolve. Prepare a second beaker of cold water with about 0.5% of urea and 3% baking soda dissolved in it. The urea is a stabilizer that will keep the ETN from breaking down. Quickly pour the dissolved ETN into the beaker of cold urea/neutralizing solution ("crash" it), stir briskly for a few minutes, and filter out the crystals as before. Wash them with water again, then test for acidity with litmus paper. If it is acidic, keep washing.

>When the crystals are cleaned and neutral, spread them out thinly on a paper towel to dry. The result is finished, pure erythritol tetranitrate explosive.
>> No. 2946 ID: e76043
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2946
I just uploaded some ebooks/PDFs to http://www.operatorchan.org/z/res/1167.html

Sorry it took so long, I was banned for a few days for shitposting on /n/

If you have any more requests, I've got several GB of stuff available
>> No. 2954 ID: 5b9651
>>2946

Be very fucking careful with those. They fall into the "not-quite-but-almost" Anarchist Cookbook category. Some of the stuff in Benson's books will work, but they leave out enough details to get you FUCKING KILLED if you just "doop dee doo!" along with the instructions. Not "maybe" get you killed. WILL. Use them as a conceptual reference, but don't attempt anything in them until you've studied the problem from a better source.
>> No. 2955 ID: e76043
>>2954
Yeah I have a docs from the Jolly Roger from the Anarchist group that have instructions for making nitrosugars that say the safe temperature limit is 200 C.

I'm pretty sure it's a trick to get idiots killed :|
>> No. 3001 ID: 8c1454
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>Picric Acid, AKA Trinotrophenol

Picric acid is a very old explosive. It was originally the chief explosive used in artillery shells circa World War 1. Notoriously hard to "high order" detonate, many shells made of such primitive trinitrophenol (TNP) were weak and actually caused comparatively little damage.

>A "high order" detonation means that the explosion reaction occurs in the material at or near the maximum possible speed, exceeding the speed of sound. This is dependent on the amount of energy used to start the reaction (the power of the detonator and how closely it is packed into the explosive) and the density of the explosive material). If an explosive goes "low order", meaning it explodes but at significantly less than its maximum speed, a significant amount of power is wasted and the explosive is greatly weakened in effect. TNP requires a strong detonator or a powerful booster for a high order detonation.

TNP is interesting for five reasons.

>It is historically significant.
>It is easy to make, even in quantity.
>It is moderately insensitive to rough handing, shock, friction, and heat.
>It can be used as a primary explosive by itself, if the detonator is strong.
>It is the main ingredient in the reactions of several other VERY useful explosives, notably lead picrate and ammonium picrate.

TNP also has one VERY severe drawback.


TNP is VERY reactive (it's not called "picric ACID" for no reason!) and reacts with metals like nobodys business, forming a material called a "picrate salt." These salts are INCREDIBLY sensitive explosives. Some of them are so sensitive that they will simply spontaneously explode, even with nothing touching them. They are incredibly unpredictable, and have the added benefit of serving as a detonator for the remaining bulk of any TNP sitting next to them! They are indescribably unsafe. For this reason, TNP can only be stored in high quality glass containers that have been THOROUGHLY scrubbed, cleaned, sanitized, and dried several times. Cheap glass might have traces of minerals in the glass itself, and these minerals WILL REACT with TNP. Ditto for residues! CLEAN, CLEAN, CLEAN!

Oh, and if you get it on you, it will stain your skin brown for a month.

TNP, as the name implies, is made by a reaction that attaches three nitro groups to the chemical phenol. While phenol is a common industrial explosive, it is not widely available over the counter. A more accessible process uses the chemical acetylsalicylic acid - better known as good, old fashioned Aspirin!

While you can use ordinary aspirin tablets, that isn't very money efficient since you'll need quite a lot of them. It is better to contact a farm supply store that handles OTC veterinary products. VERY LARGE aspirin tablets are made quite cheaply for use on cattle and horses - behold:

http://www.probioticsmart.com/farm/aspirin-bolus-240grain-50ct.html

>Density - 1.7g/cc
>Detonation Velocity - 7,750m/s
>Brisance - High
>Sensitivity - Moderate
>Volatility - High (breaks down over long times in storage, turns to a toxic vapor)
Reactivity - SEVERE with metals - EXTREMELY dangerous.

The first step is to isolate the aspirin from the binders and impurities in the tablets.

>Crush the aspirin tablets to a very fine powder and add them to a large beaker with a quantity of pure alcohol sufficient to completely dissolve them. Gently heat the beaker on your hot plate and heat to 60C, stirring the hot mixture vigorously for fifteen minutes. This dissolves the aspirin in the alcohol. Pour the hot mixture through filter paper into another beaker, and then filter it again into a clean beaker. This separates out all the binders and impurities. Let the liquid stand and evaporate, and the crystals left behind will be pure acetylsalicylic acid.

>In a 750ml beaker, add 40 grams of the pure acetylsalicylic acid to 220ml of 98% sulphuric acid and heat it to 70 degrees Celsius on a simmering water bath. Hold the temperature at 70 degrees and stir until all of the acetylsalicylic acid has dissolved. After adding the acetylsalicylic acid, the solution usually turns black.

>Once all of the acetylsalicylic acid has dissolved, remove the beaker from the heat source. While vigorously stirring, add 77g of potassium nitrate over a period of 1 hour. VERY CAREFULLY add a little more than a gram per minute, while constantly stirring.

>During potassium nitrate addition, nitrogen dioxide gas is given off. THIS GAS IS EXTREMELY TOXIC!! Perform this step outside or somewhere with very good ventilation.

>When potassium nitrate is added, the color of the solution changes from black to red/orange then back to black. When all of the potassium nitrate has been added, the color of the solution is usually very dark red, although not necessarily always, depending on impurities in the sulfuric acid. After the potassium nitrate addition, let the solution cool to room temperature. Prepare an ice bath in the mean time, for the next step.

>Place the beaker of room temperature solution in the ice bath and cool it to 5C. Once the liquid has been cooled to 5 degrees, you should have a suspension thick with picric acid crystals.

>In another beaker, add 500g of ice (made from DISTILLED WATER) to 200ml of DISTILLED, NOT TAP water. While stirring the ice/water, slowly add the picric acid solution from it beaker. After stirring thoroughly, wait 15 minutes for the picric acid to settle at the bottom of the beaker. Pour off the top 500ml or so of the liquid in the beaker, being careful not to disturb the crystals at the bottom. Top off the beaker with another 250ml of DISTILLED, NOT TAP water. Stir gently, and let the crystals re-settle.

>Filter this liquid through filter paper, being careful to collect all the TNP crystals. Discard the toxic liquid. The yellow solid crystals left in the filter is crude picric acid.

>Bring 200ml of DISTILLED, NOT TAP water to a boil in a clean 500ml beaker. When the water is boiling, remove it from the heat source and gently add the picric acid, stirring for 5 minutes to dissolve it into solution again.

>Let the beaker cool, and then place it in an ice bath and chill the picric acid solution to 5 degrees again, and then filter off the picric acid crystals with filter paper as was done in the earlier step. This is RECRYSTALLIZATION of the picric acid.

The crystals collected from the filter paper now are pure Trinitrophenol, AKA Picric Acid. Store them in a GOOD QUALITY GLASS CONTAINER, like a flat-bottomed lab flask, with a cork very loosely set into the neck. Add just enough distilled water (NEVER TAP WATER, as it can have metal impurities from pipes!) to cover the crystals in the jar - storage under a tiny bit of water renders TNP very safe. Keep in a cool, dry place.
>> No. 3149 ID: 2ddbb6
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3149
sugar beets
>wink
ammonium nitrate + diesel fuel
>> No. 3151 ID: 568553
>>3001
If its so acidic, how does one safely use it in shells?
>> No. 3152 ID: 8c1454
>>3151

In the case of German artillery shells, the interior of the shell would be painted with several coats of a rubber-based paint IIRC, to prevent it from coming into contact with any metal. The detonator had to be coated that way as well, and the layer of rubber material between the detonator and the TNP reduced the power of the detonator, explaining why so many German shells only went low-order.

In more modern use, it has been found that TNP does not react with aluminum, if the aluminum is pure and not alloyed with anything. In the amateur field TNP is usually detonated with plastic-tubed detonators or rarely, glass.

Fun fact from SomeEODguy - The Russians used to use TNP to boobytrap unexploded ordnance to kill Mujahideen during the Russo-Afghan war. They would smear a little PA on the threads of the detonator and screw it back in. A few minutes later, the TNP would react with the steel of the threads and form a layer of RETARDEDLY sensitive Iron Picrate crystals. Any attempt to unscrew the detonator again, like say to salvage the delicious explosives out of the shell, would detonate these crystals and set the whole shell off!

Fucking Russians, man.

From teh Wiki:

>Picric acid was probably first mentioned in the alchemical writings of Johann Rudolf Glauber in 1742. Initially, it was made by nitrating substances such as animal horn, silk, indigo, and natural resin, the synthesis from indigo first being performed by Peter Woulfe in 1779. Its synthesis from phenol, and the correct determination of its formula, were successfully accomplished in 1841. Not until 1830 did chemists think to use picric acid as an explosive. Before then, chemists assumed that only the salts of picric acid were explosive, not the acid itself. In 1873 Hermann Sprengel proved it could be detonated and most military powers used picric acid as their primary high explosive material. Picric acid is also used in the analytical chemistry of metals, ores, and minerals.

>Picric acid was the first high explosive nitrated organic compound widely considered suitable to withstand the shock of firing in conventional artillery. Nitroglycerine and guncotton were available earlier but shock sensitivity sometimes caused detonation in the artillery barrel at the time of firing. In 1885, based on research of Hermann Sprengel, French chemist Eugène Turpin patented the use of pressed and cast picric acid in blasting charges and artillery shells. In 1887 the French government adopted a mixture of picric acid and guncotton under the name melinite. In 1888, Britain started manufacturing a very similar mixture in Lydd, Kent, under the name lyddite. Japan followed with an "improved" formula known as shimose powder. In 1889, a similar material, a mixture of ammonium cresylate with trinitrocresol, or an ammonium salt of trinitrocresol, started to be manufactured under the name ecrasite in Austria-Hungary. By 1894 Russia was manufacturing artillery shells filled with picric acid. Ammonium picrate (known as Dunnite or explosive D) was used by the United States beginning in 1906. However, shells filled with picric acid become highly unstable if the compound reacts with metal shell or fuze casings to form metal picrates which are more sensitive than the parent phenol. The sensitivity of picric acid was demonstrated in the Halifax Explosion. Picric acid was used in the Battle of Omdurman,[1] Second Boer War, the Russo-Japanese War, and World War I. Germany began filling artillery shells with TNT in 1902. Toluene was less readily available than phenol, and TNT is less powerful than picric acid, but improved safety of munitions manufacturing and storage caused replacement of picric acid by TNT for most military purposes between the World Wars.
>> No. 3156 ID: 8c1454
Don't want to sound pushy, but I'm noticing a distinct lack of questions in this thread, and it slightly worries me.
>> No. 3157 ID: 123dc5
>>3156
I sadly lack the capacity to engage in any practice of the things detailed in this thread, but I am reading it carefully and when I have the space to build my own vented lab I'll probably be pestering you with questions.
Also I have a process chemist I can ask questions of when he isn't too busy working on his PhD.
>> No. 3160 ID: e76043
Which explosive is the best combination of easy to find ingredients and power for making at home?
>> No. 3164 ID: 0a488a
>>3156
cuz most of us lack the basic skill set to follow along, or the space to do so.
Not to mention the insane risks an amateur would be taking even trying to make some of the acid without guidance. Kids to feed, brah, so no baking cakes for me.

Please continue though. This be educational.
>> No. 3165 ID: e76043
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3165
I'll make a longer list on where to get chemicals in the morning, but ammonium nitrate can be bought at some home improvement stores and most farm supply stores. You need 34-0-0. Unprilled is better but that's harder to find since that basically says "I'm baking bombs at home".

Hexamine is used for camp fuel and can sometimes be found at walmart or an outdoors store. It's fairly easy to get online.

Nitromethane is what top fuel dragsters use for fuel. If there's a drag strip in your area you could probably find it there. Hobby stores sometimes have it for RC fuel but it's expensive as fuck in those quantites.
>> No. 3166 ID: e76043
>>3164
>Not to mention the insane risks
It's only a risk if you can't follow instructions, which isn't difficult.
>> No. 3168 ID: 8c1454
>>3165

1: You're not going to find 34-0-0 fertilizer for sale anywhere anymore. It's commercially prohibited since last year. You CAN find something called "calcium ammonium nitrate", which is similar but generally useless as an explosive.

2: The nitromethane used for RC engines is a mix of nitromethane and methanol. Most blends are only about 15-30% nitromethane and are useless for energetic materials. You need PURE nitromethane.

In both of these cases, just go online and order the shit from a chemical supplier like a normal person. Nitromethane is like $100 for 5 gallons, and you can get technical grade ammonium nitrate in 20lb bags for about $4.50 a pound. Just don't order more than 50lbs a year, there's a regulation there.

>>3164

Its only risky if you aren't careful and if you don't approach it like a professional.
>> No. 3169 ID: e76043
>>3168
Lowe's in my area still has 50lb bags of 34-0-0 for sale for $25, as do most of the farm supply store.
>> No. 3172 ID: e76043
>>3165
Also I forgot, if you're looking to buy a HUGE quantity of something, Alibaba has everything for sale. The minimum order from most of the suppliers on there is like 200kgs and up but the price per kg can't be beat.
>> No. 3173 ID: e76043
Triple post FTL, it's all over ebay too

http://www.ebay.com/itm/50lb-Bulk-Ammonium-Nitrate-34-0-0-Techniacal-Grade-/130841764967?pt=LH_DefaultDomain_0&hash=item1e76c6e467
>> No. 3175 ID: 6fced1
>>3156
I'm renting a room at a friend's house, man, I simply don't have the ability to set up the facilities I'd need to try any of this. It's a fascinating read, though, and makes me want to learn more about chemistry. I was a chem major back in 2003, but it just never took off because the career options sucked balls.
>> No. 3176 ID: 894961
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3176
I used to experiment with explosives. Then neighbors started complaining so I stopped. Which is probably a good thing since I was getting ready to make acetone peroxide.
>> No. 3178 ID: fc6c47
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3178
>>3156
Basically these >>3157 >>3175

I currently lack the time, money, or location to really get involved in any sort of chemistry or other SCIENCE right now. I'm a bit quiet because I really don't have much to say, and lack enough knowledge to form questions (while I did well, I've only taken 2 semesters of chemistry in college, so I am quite limited). But don't take that as disinterest or "if I post in the thread the gov will get me!".

But I have very much enjoyed what you've posted so far, and have found it quite enlightening. I always suspected things were a bit more involved than internet PDF's would have me believe, and if nothing else you've given me a better safety foundation.
>> No. 3182 ID: 6fced1
>>3156
But, for the purposes of the thread, I'll ask more questions.

Do you have recipes for or recommendations on two types of explosives?:

One, C4 or similar. A plastic explosive that's stupidly stable and can be formed into various shapes (improv or formed around something) before detonation. Anything from blowing up a tank to breaching a door.

Two, dynamite/TNT or something that can is easier to detonate, and can be formed into blocks or sticks and used as needed. Fuse lit, the sort of dummy-proof shit that people can run fuses to and lit, then de-ass the AO before it blows.

Realistically, from a auxiliary-to-the-resistance perspective, what I want to know is less about how to make lots of kinds of boom plastic, and more about how to make one that's always usable, as in "I just hand a squad ammo, food, and blocks of bang, and I don't need to train them in how to use any of it."

What's the best all-around type to make? Sticks of dynamite with some cannon fuse are practically fool-proof to use, but aren't exactly useable to breach a external door like a few ounces (or whatever) of C4, while the latter requires blasting caps instead of fuses.

Is it even legal to ask about making something that doesn't remotely resemble frag grenades?
>> No. 3184 ID: e76043
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3184
>>3182
I posted C4 recipes in
http://www.operatorchan.org/z/res/1167.html

http://www.operatorchan.org/z/src/Paladin_Press_-_William_Wallace_-_The_Revised_Blac.pdf
This one has C4, TNT, and a bunch of other stuff in it
>> No. 3185 ID: 5adb5b
>>3182
Dynamite is nitroglycerin >>2877 mixed with http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diatomaceous_earth I would do a bit more research to make sure that it's being properly produced, but that should do it, though it will still be unstable as it freezes.
>> No. 3190 ID: 5b9651
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3190
>>3184

DO NOT trust anything in those books!!!!!!!

Yes, I resorted to multiple exclamation marks. I'd cut my own dick off if some OPERATOR got hurt from something in one of my threads.

A few brief points that I can expound on later:

1: C4 is NOT the name of an explosive. It is the name of a composition. A recipe of sorts for mixing an explosive with other stuff for a particular purpose. There are several compositions used by the US Military, including Comp.A, B, C, and D variations. The fourth variation of Composition C is only the most famous because of movies and vidya. The EXPLOSIVE used in comp. C-4 is actually RDX type B.

2: NONE of Ragnar Benson's recipes are for actual C4. They all hinge on somewhat plasticlike variations of Ammonium Nitrate dynamites. They can be useful yes, but they are nothing like the real deal in power or stability.

3: Yes, there are at least a couple interesting explosive compositions that could be mass-produced for general applications. We will be looking at those when we get to the Industrial Production sections. We'll look at phlegmatizers, plasticizers, and tackifiers as well. We're going to be looking at TNT and Picric Acid industrial production especially.
>> No. 3191 ID: e76043
>>3190
The only reason those recipes aren't technically C4 is because it uses a different plasticizer than the military grade stuff. I've used 3 of the different recipes in those books and it results in real RDX (verified with a chronometer) which is the important part.

If you want to be a pedantic retard, it's virtually impossible to make real C4 since dioctyl sebacate and polyisobutylene are almost impossible to find/make as a civillian.
>> No. 3192 ID: 5b9651
>>3191

Actually, you're wrong on both counts. But I'll be getting to sources on those later when we cover the military compositions.

RDX can be made in the lab from Hexamine or paraformaldehyde with ascetic anhydride, but the yields are dildos and its expensive. Its one we'll be looking at as an experiment, but not for production.

>chronometer.

That was the giveaway. Try less hard, learn more. Or don't be the type of guy who should be reading this thread. Keep the bomb-making manuals out of it.
>> No. 3193 ID: 28e84c
>>3191
>verified with a chronometer
A... clock?

nigga pls.
>> No. 3196 ID: 8c1454
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3196
Time for our next experiment, and this is a fun one.

>Nitrocellulose, or NC

Nitrocellulose is a very simple explosive that is actually pretty unfriendly to make. The process isn't hard, but getting the material pure enough and neutralized enough to keep it from spontaneously exploding makes it one of the hardest explosives to make. Easy to do, but a bitch to do right. NC is a very old explosive, and the main ingredient in several very useful explosive compositions, including one that is a neat piece of history.

>Nitrocellulose (also: cellulose nitrate, flash paper, flash cotton, flash string) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent. When used as a propellant or low-order explosive, it was originally known as guncotton. Nitrocellulose plasticized by camphor was used by Kodak, and other suppliers, from the late 1880s as a film base in photograph, X-ray films and motion picture films; and was known as nitrate film. After numerous fires caused by unstable nitrate films, safety film started to be used from the 1930s in the case of X-ray stock and from 1948 for motion picture film.

>Henri Braconnot discovered in 1832 that nitric acid, when combined with starch or wood fibers, would produce a lightweight combustible explosive material, which he named xyloïdine. A few years later in 1838 another French chemist Théophile-Jules Pelouze (teacher of Ascanio Sobrero and Alfred Nobel) treated paper and cardboard in the same way. He obtained a similar material he called nitramidine. Both of these substances were highly unstable, and were not practical explosives. However, around 1846 Christian Friedrich Schönbein, a German-Swiss chemist, discovered a more practical solution. As he was working in the kitchen of his home in Basel, he spilled a bottle of concentrated nitric acid on the kitchen table. He reached for the nearest cloth, a cotton apron, and wiped it up. He hung the apron on the stove door to dry, and, as soon as it was dry, there was a flash as the apron exploded. His preparation method was the first to be widely imitated—one part of fine cotton wool to be immersed in fifteen parts of an equal blend of sulfuric and nitric acids. After two minutes, the cotton was removed and washed in cold water to set the esterification level and remove all acid residue. It was then slowly dried at a temperature below 100 °F (about 38 °C). Schönbein collaborated with the Frankfurt professor Rudolf Christian Böttger, who had discovered the process independently in the same year. By coincidence, a third chemist, the Brunswick professor F. J. Otto had also produced guncotton in 1846 and was the first to publish the process, much to the disappointment of Schönbein and Böttger.

This preparation is sourced from "The Chemistry of Powder and Explosives", which you can find in the thread in /z/ with some modifications made by me.

Nitrocellulose
>Formula: C6H7(NO2)3O5
>Detonation velocity: ~7300m/s
>Sensitivity: Mild to shock and vibration. Severe to flame, spark, and heat.
>Volatility: Low, stores easily for long periods if pure.
>Brisance: Low to moderate.
>VERY spark and flame sensitive. The slightest zap will send it up in a roaring whoosh of flame. Explodes with modest power when confined.

Materials:

>Concentrated nitric acid
>Concentrated sulfuric acid
>Pure white cotton balls, free of perfumes, dies, and chemicals
>Four medium to large beakers
>Hotplate
>Lots of distilled water
>An ordinary oven

First start by cleaning and drying the cotton.

>Boil a few cotton balls in a beaker of distilled water for ten minutes, stirring gently, let the mixture cool and carefully remove the cotton balls to a clean ceramic plate. Let them air dry in a clean spot for a day or until totally dry, and then place the plate of cotton in the oven at 100 degrees and dry them for 2 hours. DO NOT SKIP THIS STEP! Impurities in the cotton are the most frequent cause of failed synths and accidents when making NC, and the cotton must be absolutely dry.

>In another beaker, pour 75ml of sulfuric acid. Then, VERY CAREFULLY, add an equal volume (75ml) of nitric acid to it and stir them together well with a glass stirring rod. What you are making is a VERY powerful, concentrated nitrating solution commonly called "mixed acid."

>Measure out five grams of the clean, dry cotton and drop it into the beaker of mixed acid, and immediately stir it into the acid with a glass stirring rod. BEWARE OF TOXIC FUMES! Use good ventilation!

>Allow the cotton to sit in the acid for 30 minutes, stirring it every 3 to 5 minutes for 30 seconds at a time. Temperature control is less critical in this reaction than some others. During breaks in the stirring, prepare a 500ml beaker of cold distilled water, and bring another 500ml beaker of distilled water to a boil and set them nearby.

>After 30 minutes, the cotton ball should be removed from the beaker. As you take it out, press it up against the side of the beaker with your stirring rod and squeeze as much acid as possible out of it. IMMEDIATELY DROP IT INTO THE BEAKER OF COLD WATER.

>Stir the cotton ball in the water vigorously, to try and get as much acid as possible out of it. After a minute or two of stirring, transfer the cotton to a funnel lined with filter paper, and wash it under cold running (distilled) water, prodding at it gently with a glass stirring rod, to remove more acid.

>After washing it this way, place it in a large beaker of gently boiling distilled water and boil the cotton for one hour. Then transfer the cotton to a new, clean beaker of distilled water and boil it again for a half hour. THEN remove it, place it in ANOTHER clean beaker, and boil for a half hour more! DO NOT SKIP THESE STEPS IF YOU LIKE YOUR HANDS AND FACE. You cannot neutralize NC, because the baking soda will form an impurity that can cause detonation. The only way to de-acidify the stuff is by washing the shit out of it - boiling it, in clean water several times.

>After the third boiling, test some of the residue water with litmus paper. ANY TRACE OF ACIDITY MEANS YOU MUST BOIL IT AGAIN.

Once the boilings leave the NC with a completely neutral ph, all that is left is to dry it. Place the cotton balls on a clean plate held at an angle and press out as much water as you can without pressing too hard. Set the plate in a warm, dry spot away from any source of spark or flame and let it air dry for a day. The result is pure nitrocellulose.

Pic related - the exact same process, but done on a haybale-scale!
>> No. 3197 ID: 1a7bca
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3197
>>3192
>being this retarded
>2013
Please continue, it's fun watching you embarrass yourself.

>>3191
Military switched plasticizers last year, I forgot the name of the new one but it's something ethyl based
>> No. 3198 ID: 8c1454
>>3197

For the uninitiated, what he is alluding to is the measurement of detonation velocity as proof of the explosives power to confirm what it is. Which works.

I'll let you figure out why it DOESN'T work with a chronograph. Hint: WAY TOO FAST TO EVEN START TO POSSIBLY MEASURE. The best amateur way to measure VoD still requires a length of purchased Detcord and a lead reference plate. I'll have to look the exact procedure up again, but I can post it later if anybody wants it.
>> No. 3201 ID: fc6c47
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3201
guys

guys...

this is science thread, no more insults or bad feelings please. :(
>> No. 3202 ID: 038051
>>3198
Please do. And in regards to the lack of questions...most of us just aren't in a position/have time/have equipment to do this testing ATM. I, for one, am still quite interested in reading though.

Oh, maybe a "chem set" post is in order, with the "Best bang for your buck" starter equipment discussion, or discussion about what you really need to buy rather than fudge, labware-wise.
>> No. 3203 ID: 5b9651
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3203
Now, what you may not have realized is that with the addition of nitrocellulose to our study, we have opened the door to another fun material.

Would you like to know what the most powerful explosive in the world for a very long time was? How about the first "plastic" explosive?

The answer is Gelignite - AKA "blasting gelatine."

From the Chemistry of Powder and Explosives pp.343-344

>A freshly prepared blasting gelatine consisting of 93 parts nitroglycerine and 7 parts of collodion cotton (nitrocellulose) is exploded by a No. 1 blasting cap (the weakest) and propagates detonation even in 25mm cartridges across a gap of about 10mm.

Nitroglycerine, you see, is actually plasticized by the addition of a small amount of nitrocellulose! Blasting gel was one of the first of what we today recognize as "plastic explosives" - it was an explosive compound that was soft and moldable. It could be more or less "stiff" depending on the amount of NC that was added to the NG. Seven parts was about the minimum, and with more than about 9 parts it became very stiff and hard to detonate.

also of note is that as you approach a 50/50 mix of NG and NC, some interesting things happen. For one the material becomes EXTREMELY hard to detonate, but will burn with a powerful flash and very little smoke residue. The NG+NC combination is actually the basis (there are other additives and stabilizers too) for what we today call DBSP - "double-base smokeless powder." In other words, the common "gunpowder" used for reloading ammunition.
>> No. 3211 ID: 5b9651
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3211
Now I want you to go back up to the Nitroglycerine synth we talked about earlier. Recall the section here:

>After adding all of the glycerin, allow the temperature to drop to 15 °C and sit for 15 minutes. Very carefully pour the reaction mix into a large beaker containing an equal volume of room temperature water. Add this mix to a separatory funnel and allow the nitroglycerin to settle out, it will form a layer on the bottom of the funnel. Carefully drain this layer out and discard the waste acids left over.

That's a lot of hard-won acid mix you're throwing away, isn't it? What if I told you that you could save that nasty used acid and put it to good use in making yet ANOTHER explosive. Well read on here:

http://www.operatorchan.org/z/src/Using_Nitroglycerine_Waste_Acids.pdf

The short version is that you can use the leftover acid from making NG or NC to produce a mild but interesting explosive liquid called mononitrotoluene (MNT).

>Toluene is available in large gallon cans from most hardware stores, sold as paint thinner. Make sure it is pure (check MSDS) before using it.

To use the procedure, save the waste acid from the NG or NC reaction after the separation of the corresponding explosive. For NG this would be the point after the quoted text, and for NC would be the point immediately after removing the cotton ball from the acid.

>Place the spent acid beaker into the refridgerator and cool it to about 40C.

>Calculate how much usable nitric acid is available in the spent mix. This requires a bit of chemistry math. An example is reprinted below for your convenience, if you've taken chem it should look quite familiar.

"Mass Potassium Nitrate / Molecular Weight Potassium Nitrate = Moles HNO3 Available


Vol NG produced * Density NG = Mass NG Produced


Moles NG Produced = Mass NG Produced / MW NG

From Stoichiometry

3 moles HNO3 ----> 1 mol NG

Moles of HNO3 used = 3 * Moles of NG Produced

Moles HNO3 left = Moles HNO3 available - Moles HNO3 Used


From Stoichiometry
(going with an assumed 90% conversion based on HNO3)

1 mol HNO3 ----> 1 mol MNT

with 90% conversion
1 mol HNO3 -----> 0.9 mol MNT

moles HNO3 * 0.9 = Moles of Toluene needed

mass of Toluene = moles Toluene * MW Toluene

Volume Toluene = Mass Toluene / Density of Toluene


There are losses in both the esterification of NG and the nitration of toluene, so the amount of toluene needed is possibly somewhat less."

Using those formulas you can calculate how much good nitric acid you have left in the spent acid mix, and thus how much toluene you can add to it.

>Place the measured amount of toluene in a beaker and cool it in the refrigerator to 30C.

>Place the beaker of toluene in an ice bath. Maintain the temperature between 30 and 40C!

>Carefully, drop by drop, add the spent acid mix to the toluene while stirring vigorously. Keep the temperature between 30 and 40C AT ALL TIMES! Adding all the acid mix should take approximately an hour to an hour and a half.

>Once all of the acid has been added and the reaction has settled down a bit, remove the beaker from the ice bath and continue stirring vigorously for a further 30 minutes.

>Once the stirring is complete, CAREFULLY transfer the contents of the beaker to a clean separatory funnel, and let it stand at room temperature overnight.

>The liquid will separate into two layers. The bottom layer is the waste acid, now fully spent and useless. The top layer is MNT, and should be an oily liquid with a strong smell of almonds. Use the separatory funnel to drain off the spent acid, and place the crude MNT in a clean beaker.

Wash the MNT in a similar manner as nitroglycerine - add it to a generous portion of warm water, stir vigorously for ten minutes, and return it to the separatory funnel and let stand until it separates. Repeat this washing procedure until the water residue tests neutral for acid.

Once it tests neutral, the final result is pure mononitrotoluene. I'll show you a neat use for it in the next post.
>> No. 3214 ID: 8c1454
File 136340112228.jpg - (33.25KB , 788x281 , 978_001.jpg )
3214
MNT is a very limpdick liquid explosive. Its primary use is to undergo two further nitration reactions to create TRInitrotoluene - TNT. But in the early days somebody came up with a really neat way to use it.

As many here are aware, I have an obsession with obscure knowledge. Here is another piece of it for your consumption.

Ever heard of an explosive called Nobel 808?

Sure you have, you just don't know it yet.

Nobel 808 was the first military, mass produced plastic explosive ever. A formula very close to it is STILL in use today in Britain - it is the plastic explosive used in HESH-type tank rounds!

Blocks of it were also provided to the British operatives in the SOE, and large amounts were used by the LRDG for sabotage missions. AND! Remember Operation Valkrie? Not the Tom Cruise movie, the real one. Guess the explosive used in the briefcase that was intended to take out Hitler? That's right bitches. We're about to make literal History.

>Lewes Bomb

>Developed by Jock Lewes, second in command of the SAS, the bomb was a one pound charge consisting of thermite, Nobel 808 plastic explosive. and a flammable liquid (motor oil). Using a delayed fuse, the charge was placed on enemy aircraft. The preferred location of placement was where the wing met the fuselage . This was thought to be the best place to cause the most damage. (Aircraft often had their fuel cells in the wings.)

>The Lewes bomb came about because grenades and other explosive devices proved unreliable. Lewes' formula was a pound of plastic explosive, and a quarter pound of thermite mixed with a bit of diesel oil. Inside the mass was inserted a 2-ounce dry guncotton primer and detonator and a thirty-second fuse. The most common ignition method used was time pencils or pencil detonators. Others included release switches and pressure switches.

>The Lewes bomb was a field expedient explosive. It is unclear what the container for the explosive was but it was probably a simple canvas sack or pouch as was common at the time. The bomb was usually placed and not thrown.

>Plastic Explosive (Nobel 808) is a type of explosive material that is stable over a wide temperature range, easily shaped by hand, and relatively stable. Most formulations can be struck and /or burned with causing an explosion. The most common plastic explosive used by the British during World War II was developed by the Nobel Chemicals Ltd. and was commonly known as "Nobel 808". It looked like green Play-doh and smelled faintly of almonds. During WW2 it was extensively used by the British Commandos, Royal Engineers and the Special Operations Executive (SOE) .

Nobel 808 is an obscure little explosive in terms of technical data, and after a lot of hunting I turned up the following recipe:

>Nobel's 808 (by weight)
Nitroglycerine..........61.5%
Nitrocellulose...........16.0%
Calcium Carbonate....0.5%
Mono Nitro Toluene...22.0%

Detonation Velocity: ~6600m/s
Brisance: High
Stability: High
Sensitivity: Low to moderate - will safely withstand mildly rough handling and fair temperature ranges. Can tolerate cold temperatures without freezing, unlike dynamite.
Toxicity: Mild, but exposure on bare skin or inhalation of fumes can cause severe acute headache ("nitro" headache).

The MNT could be produced from the waste acids from both the NG and NC syntheses, so this plastic explosive could be made in very large quantities very cheaply and very efficiently, using a minimum of expensive nitric acid.

>In a large beaker VERY GENTLY add an amount of 61.5% by weight of pure, neutralized nitroglycerine.

>To the NG, very carefully add 22% by weight of mononitrotoluene and stir gently for ten minutes.

>To the resulting mixture add .5% by weight of calcium carbonate, and stir gently for ten minutes.

>Measure out 16% by weight of dry, acid-free, clean nitrocellulose. Tease the nitrocellulose gently with the hands. USE ANTI STATIC SPRAY AND WEAR GLOVES! Divide it as finely as possible.

>VERY gently, start adding the nitrocellulose to the mixture in small pinches, stirring them into the liquid thoroughly. The more you add and the more you stir, the thicker the gel will become. Continue until all the NC has been added, and continue stirring for fifteen minutes.

Allow the finished mixture to set in a cool, dry place. The final result is a green, doughy substance smelling of almonds, with similar explosive power to straight TNT. Keep it in a cool, dry place, don't sniff it real deeply, and make sure you wear gloves when handling it unless you want a headache from hell!

Congratulations on making a very useful little piece of history, OPERATOR!
>> No. 3218 ID: 28e84c
>>3214
This seems like an all around winner explosive if all youve said about it is true.
>> No. 3222 ID: 5b9651
File 136346365241.jpg - (567.91KB , 964x768 , 808 gel.jpg )
3222
>>3218

Indeed.

The reactions for both NG and NC scale up as big as you want, so you can make shitloads of it in big batches easily. The leftover acid is used to make the MNT, and you combine the three to make as much of this stuff as you want.

I kinda rushed into it in response to Soren's question.

So why was 808 replaced in general use? Explosives like C4 and SEMTEX are a fair bit more powerful (7500-8000m/s VoD versus 6600) and are less toxic. The nitro headache from 808 won't kill you, but you can handle C4, for example, barehanded and not get sick at all. Still, for an amateur production facility, 808 is HAAAAARD to beat for efficiency. The only real limit is how much sulfuric acid you can get - almost everything else is made!
>> No. 3225 ID: 6fced1
>>3214
Hmm. Seems like a winner to me, "Wear gloves" is certainly a simple enough instruction for a squad of grunts to use.

Method of detonation?

I almost feel bad for asking about this stuff, I know that I'm basically going to remember what bang to use, then do all the research later when it becomes possible.
>> No. 3227 ID: 8c1454
File 136349787365.jpg - (73.16KB , 416x405 , 1302886842178.jpg )
3227
>>3225

Reportedly any standard #8 commercial or issue military blasting cap will set it off. I'll be covering detonators soon, once we knock out a few more basic explosives. I even have a really neat recipe for a stupidly easy to make boosted detonator (the main ingredient you don't even make, just buy it OTC and use it). With a 2 or 3 gram booster added, it can set off just about any explosive you could ever want, and is reasonably safe to boot.

Don't stop, I actually really like answering questions. That's half the fun of these threads, because sometimes people will hit me with stuff I legit don't know or hadn't thought of and I have to go learn more!
>> No. 3228 ID: 6fced1
>>3227
>reportedly
Man, how have you not tested this?

Still sounds like a winner, though. I'll have to remember this, it's going into the notebook.

>Thrawn
The ultimate realization of Sun-Tzu's statement that a general who knows both himself and his enemies will never know danger in a hundred battles. Unless, of course, he's surrounded by trained assassins that he's manipulated into supporting him.

There's just no way that could ever go wrong.
>> No. 3229 ID: 6fced1
>>3227
Questions:

Alright, I remember your shaped charge thread, at least enough of the basics that I could make it work if needed. standoff being equal to the thickness one wants to cut, etc.

What sort of bang do you recommend for such?
>> No. 3230 ID: 28e84c
So im guessing C4 and SEMTEX are quite hard to make in any practical quantity (and the military does it anyway because it has too much money)
>> No. 3232 ID: 5b9651
File 136353856613.jpg - (113.59KB , 800x1132 , Oxygen-balance---Q.jpg )
3232
>>3230

Yep. That, and the main chemical needed if you want to bulk produce C4 is very tightly controlled by the DEA. I don't remember if its meth or smack, but its got a major use in some nasty drug synth. C4 in its original incarnation was 92% RDX explosive, 7% mineral oil, and a 1% lecithin binder. What they use today uses ethyl sebacate and polyisobutylene rubber in similar proportions. The hard part is RDX. You can make it in the lab, but lab-scale production yields are pathetic, the synth itself is pretty hard, and the components are both expensive and restricted. Its basically a "dick waving" explosive - you get to say "ooh! I made C4 in the lab! Look at my two whole grams of it!" lol.

SEMTEX is a moo-goo-gai-pan of explosives. The main one in it is PETN at around 70%, but you'll find TNT and MNT, and dinitrotoluene and nitroglycerine and a whole host of other stuff with all kinds of random binders and shit. They only thing they keep consistent is its detonation pressure curve. The exact makeup from batch to batch can vary widely.

We'll be looking at an analog of C4 and SEMTEX using ETN as the main explosive a little later.

>>3229

You need to reread that thread m8. Standoff distance varies wildly with cone angle. Penetration is affected by cone diameter. Just print the whole page to a .pdf and save the charts and figures I posted as pics.

As far as bang goes, the bigger the better. I'm currently researching a combination of TNT and ETN as a sort of pseudo-Pentolite, but we can look at other options too. R-Salts will be a wonderful choice if I can ever crack just how to fucking utilize it. Nobel 808, if packed tightly and carefully vibrated to remove air bubbles, and set off with a potent booster charge would certainly make for decent shaped charges. On a scale of 1 to 10, I'd rate it about a seven, if that answers your question.
>> No. 3236 ID: 0a488a
Hey Acid man, do you know any recipes for ammunition primers?
>> No. 3237 ID: 8c1454
File 136357222055.jpg - (9.94KB , 320x240 , pbpic3.jpg )
3237
Alright, time for the next one.

Remember when I did Picric Acid, AKA TNP, and said that it was the precursor for some other, useful explosives?

Well here they come. You see, those horribly dangerous picrate salts that I mentioned to avoid at all costs really ARE just that fucking dangerous. With a couple of exceptions. It turns out that by deliberately reacting TNP with certain materials, you can end up with a useful explosive that is totally different from TNP itself. And the synths are ridiculously easy since TNP is just so goddamned reactive. They basically amount to "make solution > mix > filter > wash > done!"

The first one is a fun one - Lead Picrate. LP is actually a pretty useful explosive. It is a primary explosive - meaning that you can set it off easily with a spark or flame.

Explosives in general tend to fall into one of four categories, with certain ones overlapping.

>PRIMARY explosives are modestly powerful but VERY sensitive explosives. You can detonate them with spark, flame, or shock very easily. These are the most dangerous, so you use them in tiny quantities to set off bigger, safer secondary explosives. Examples: HMTD, Lead Styphnate, Lead Picrate, Mercury Fulminate, Silver Fulminate, Silver Acetylide.

>SECONDARY explosives are explosives that are slightly less sensitive than primaries (require an explosion to initiate them) but significantly more powerful. These are used along with primary explosives to amplify their explosion energy to help trigger other explosives. Examples: Pure RDX, Pure ETN, Pure PETN, Lead Azide, Picric Acid, Nitroglycerine.

>BOOSTER explosives are explosives that are fairly stable and modestly hard to detonate and are usually expensive or hard to produce, but offer EXTREME power in small amounts. These greatly amplify the energy of a small explosion so that it can be used to trigger a large mass of explosive or a particularly stubborn, hard to detonate explosive by setting it off with a tremendous shock. Examples: Tetryl, Gelignite, RDX or ETN pressed to maximum density, Pentolite.

>BULK explosives are explosives that make up the mass of an explosive outside the detonator. They tend to be inexpensive, though not always, depending on the application. They also tend to be difficult to detonate, which is desirable considering that they tend to be utilized by the kilogram instead of by the gram. Most familiar explosives fall into this category. Specific Examples: TNT, Guncotton, Gelignite, Ammonium Nitrate, Dynamite, Astrolite, C4, SEMTEX, Tovex, Amatol, Ammonal, Pentolite

The way you make an explosion happen is with something called the "Explosive Train." You start with a spark of energy, like from a fuse or electric squib. This sets off a tiny bit (.25-1.5grams) of a sensitive primary explosive, which detonates a nearby modest bit (1-5grams) of secondary explosive, which explodes and initiates a (5-10grams) booster, which is embedded in a big pile (skies the limit, depending on confinement) of bulk explosive.

Lead Picrate

Detonation Velocity: ~4400m/s
Brisance: High
Sensitivity: VERY HIGH! Detonates from shock, spark, or flame VERY easily. Handle with extreme care!
Toxicity: High. Causes moderate to severe skin and eye irritation, potentially fatal if ingested.

>Materials
Methanol
Lead Monoxide (white powder granules, available online or from art supply stores that do ceramics and pottery)
Picric Acid from our earlier synth
Distilled Water

>To a small beaker add 10ml of methanol and heat it gently on your hotplate.

>Add 2 grams of picric acid to the warm methanol, continue heating, and stir it until no solids remain. It will turn to a soupy, yellowish liquid.

>To this liquid add 2 grams of Lead(II) Oxide, finely powdered, and continue stirring.

>Shortly after the mixture begins to boil, a reaction will occur which causes it to suddenly thicken, like batter. Continue boiling for three minutes, or until the mixture has become too thick to stir easily. BE WARY OF LARGE CLUMPS FORMING, KEEP STIRRING AND KEEP THE MIXTURE AS SMOOTHLY FLOWING AS POSSIBLE! DO NOT LET CRYSTALS CLUMP ON THE INSIDES OF THE BEAKER!

>Remove the beaker from the heat source and continue stirring it to prevent hotspots. When it is only warm to the touch, very carefully scrape out the thick pudding-like yellow material and place it in a fulter-paper lined funnel.

>Wash the material on the funnel with large amounts of methanol, until the resulting wash liquid becomes completely clear. Transfer it to a clean filter and wash it again. THE MATERIAL IS VERY SENSITIVE! DO NOT JAR IT, BUMP IT ROUGHLY, OR SCRAPE IT! HANDLE WITH GREAT CARE!

>After washing, transfer the remaining crystals to a ceramic plate, spreading them in a very thin layer. Place the plate in the oven and heat it very slowly to 190 degrees Fahrenheit and hold the temperature there for two hours.

Turn off the oven and let the material cool slowly. The result will be a fine yellow-red colored powder. This is pure Lead Picrate. Four grams of it pressed in a detonator will detonate most secondary explosives and some boosters.
>> No. 3238 ID: 8c1454
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3238
>>3236

The old dudes in Khyber Pass will knock the spent primers out of a spent casing, use a needle to pick the little metal "anvil" out from the inside, remove the dent in the primer face with a block and a punch, and then put a pinch of potassium chlorate (from ground up strike-anywhere match heads) in there. Then they carefully re-seat the anvil, crimp it in very gently, and load the primer back into the casing.

Not great, but it works.
>> No. 3241 ID: 0a488a
>>3238
interesting
wounder how reliable those are? I always figured if the government really wanted disarm the populace, making primers scarcer then hen's teeth would be a quick way to go about it. All the guns in the world wouldn't matter if you couldn't afford to train and use them.
>> No. 3242 ID: ffc9e7
Acid man, have you ever wanted to take up a few metal working classes? I think it would mesh well with what you do.
>> No. 3244 ID: 5b9651
File 136361574113.jpg - (185.73KB , 640x480 , 6058037873_10bacbb0e4_z.jpg )
3244
>>3242

I did metals for 2 years in high school and a half year in college. What I REALLY need is a small shop, but don't have the time, room, or money. In particular I want to learn metal spinning. Just another one of those things on the big Life Checklist left to do.
>> No. 3257 ID: 8c1454
File 136367591823.jpg - (155.93KB , 666x544 , Hodges-AmmoniumPicrate.jpg )
3257
Next up is a similar explosive with a very unique use:

>Ammonium Picrate

Ammonium Picrate actually has a US military explosive designation - it is called Composition D. And it has a very unique property among high explosives: It is both very powerful, and incredibly insensitive to shock.

>Ammonium picrate is a salt formed by reacting picric acid and ammonia. It may be noted as the first explosive used in an aerial bombing operation in military history, performed by Italian pilots in Libya in 1911.[3] It was used extensively by the United States Navy during World War I. Though Dunnite was generally considered an insensitive substance, by 1911 the United States Army had abandoned its use in favor of other alternatives. The Navy, however, used it in armor-piercing artillery shells and projectiles, and in coastal defense.

>Dunnite typically did not detonate on striking heavy armor. Rather, the shell encasing it would penetrate the armor, after which the charge would be triggered by a fuse.

That's from the Wiki, and isn't entirely correct. The Army continued to use it throughout World War 2 as the explosive in a particular munition, and for the same reason: The APCBC anti-tank shell. The name stands for "Armor-piercing capped, ballistic capped." On impact, the round would either penetrate a tank's armor, or embed itself deeply into it before exploding - punching through and wiping out the crew. This is the only readily-made explosive capable of withstanding the shock of projectile impact.

>Ammonium picrate, also called 2,4,6-trinitrophenol ammonium salt, ammonium trinitrophenolate, Dunnite, or Explosive D, is prepared in much the same way as nitrogen triiodide. Ammonium picrate was first prepared in 1841 by a scientist named Marchand. It was not used until 1869 when it was mixed with potassium nitrate as a propellent for rifles. Alfred Nobel patented it in 1888 for Dynamites. The US Army picked it up in 1901, and the Navy floated it in 1907. It saw peak production during WWII but has since fallen victim to progress in chemistry. This explosive is relatively stable, therefore safer to prepare and handle.

Detonation Velocity: 7150m/s
Brisance: Moderate, slightly less than TNT.
Sensitivity: Very mild - one of the safest explosives to handle in terms of bumps and shocks, but still fairly sensitive to spark and flame.
Toxicity: Moderate. Can cause severe poisoning if ingested, avoid direct skin and contact.
Stability: Weak to moderate. Pure red form will degrade to a yellow oxidized state over time. The yellow state is much more sensitive and less stable, but of equal power. KEEP IT DRY.

>Materials

Pure Picric Acid / TNP
Clear, unscented household ammonia
Distilled water
Hotplate
750ml beaker

>Add 1 gram of picric acid crystals to the beaker and add enough distilled water to cover them, plus a little excess.

>Heat the solution on the hotplate to with continuous stirring until all of the picric acid has dissolved and no solids remain. At this point turn off the heat.

>To the hot picric acid solution, carefully add 450ml of clear household ammonia while stirring vigorously. The exact amount doesn't matter in this particular case, but there must be a major excess of it. I chose 450ml as an arbitrary amount based on the typical ammonium hydroxide concentrations found in household ammonia - feel free to use more.

>Continue stirring the solution vigorously for fifteen minutes, then let it stand and fully evaporate.

All of the picric acid will react with the ammonium hydroxide from the ammonia solution, leaving a solution of ammonium picrate crystals suspended in water and leftover ammonia. As the latter two will evaporate on their own, the only thing that will be left in the beaker is pure ammonium picrate. You can speed up the evaporation by pouring the solution into a shallow ceramic dish and leaving it in a sunny spot for a few hours. The finished product does not require washing, and will resemble reddish-yellow or brown crystals. Keep them very dry for best results.
>> No. 3258 ID: 75c8bf
>>3257
>Navy floated it
i c wat u did thar

So, can one make this in any meaningful quantities? And when you say it degrades... how long can you store and still use it (safely) the way it's intended?
>> No. 3260 ID: 5b9651
>>3258

>Quantities

Oh yes, there is an industrial process for making TNP that we'll be looking at later. Once you have the TNP you can make as much ammonium picrate as you want - just scale it up and use cooling equipment, which we will also be covering.

As far as degradation, it takes a couple months in storage for the red form to oxidize and turn yellow. That doesn't mean you can't still use it, mind you. It's just as good as an explosive, it just becomes more sensitive and you couldn't put it in shells anymore. Handle the yellow form with care and you'll be good to go.

Lead Picrate, Picric Acid, and Ammonium Picrate have a nice synergy as well. One of the few things you can combine with picric acid without risk of reaction danger are picrate salts. The next post will start getting into what you can do with them.
>> No. 3261 ID: 5b9651
File 136370994538.jpg - (47.22KB , 369x290 , Detonator%20Group_JPG.jpg )
3261
Time for a contentious subject.

There are a lot of recipes floating around the net for explosives. Every idiot high school punk has probably risked blowing his fingers off at some point by making something out of a ____cookbook or _____handbook. Facts of life.

But explosives are only useful if you can set them off with something. The biggest pile of TNT in the world is no good if you don't have a detonator. And the rule of detonators, with VERY few exceptions is:

>Effective, Safe, Homemade - Pick Two.

What we're going to address are a couple of those exceptions.

I'm going to give initial credit for some of this to Ragnar Benson. His book on Homemade Detonators is probably the finest guide anyone has ever written in the clear about blasting cap design, though I find the use of HMTD in his recipe somewhat troubling. Organic peroxide explosives scare the cap out of me, both personally and professionally. HMTD is the least dangerous of them, and is still radically more sensitive than I like.

First we're going to talk theory, then explosives, then use and handling.

>So what IS a detonator or "blasting cap", exactly?

It is a small tube containing a powerful, sensitive explosive, or mixture of explosives, that incorporates a means of deliberately detonating those explosives without the use of an originating explosion - such as flame, spark, heat, or electrical shock, and which is to be incorporated into a larger mass of bulk explosive material in order to detonate it with the shockwave thus produced.

>As a very basic example of principle, I want you to imagine a Black Cat firecracker. It is a small tube, made of paper in this case, that contains an explosive (flash powder - a very weak explosive made from potassium perchlorate OXIDIZER and aluminum powder FUEL, but an explosive nonetheless). At one end is a fuse protruding out from the explosive and sealed in place. The tube is sealed at the ends so the explosive can't get out, and moisture or other contaminants can't get in. Imagine shaking a Black Cat. Do you hear anything move? NO. The explosive inside is tamped, or packed tightly, so it can't jostle around and has high DENSITY. Break the Black Cat in half. The paper tube is pretty thick, isn't it? That helps CONFINE the explosive, making sure it all burns up at once. Think how a Black Cat works - You light the fuse, & the black powder in the fuse burns until it reaches the paper case and goes inside. Once the spark touches the flash powder, the mass of DENSE, CONFINED explosive, "pop!" - the material all burns up at once, rupturing the paper case with a satisfying explosion.

Now, a Black Cat by itself is a very weak explosion - WAY below the levels of even weak high explosives. But we're going to use one to illustrate the number one key factor in detonator design: TOTAL ENERGY RELEASE - (detonation velocity, brisance, and total quantity) OF THE DETONATOR VERSUS SENSITIVITY AND MASS OF THE EXPLOSIVE TO BE DETONATED.

Lets illustrate the extremes with our Black Cat firecracker example.

We'll pick a real explosive that all of you are already familiar with - Tannerite. Tannerite is mostly Ammonium Nitrate - a VERY stable, insensitive explosive. It is so insensitive that even when mixed with a catalyst to make it more sensitive, it still takes the force of a high-power rifle round to set it off. Our detonator - the Black Cat - is weak, with a small charge of low brisance and velocity. If we poke the Black Cat down into the Tannerite and light the fuse, the only thing we'll get for our trouble is a pop, some Tannerite flying up, and some smoke.

Now lets go to the opposite end of the scale. Sure, the Black Cat is weak. But Nitroglycerine is VERY sensitive. If we float the Black Cat is a test tube of nitroglycerine and light the fuse.... well I'll simply say you should NOT be holding any part of it in your hand, or be anywhere nearby when the fuse runs out, LOL.

So the design of the detonator depends on what explosives you're using. The more explosive you want to set off, or the more insensitive it is, the more power you need in the detonator. So how do you make a detonator more powerful? With that wonderful EXPLOSIVE TRAIN we talked about a few posts ago.

Example: Say we took our Black Cat now, and we float it in a test tube of nitroglycerine again. And now we poke the test tube of nitroglycerine down into the jar of Tannerite. We then light the fuse and run like hell. What happens?

>The SPARK from the fuse enters the Black Cat and DETONATES the flash powder within. The SHOCK of the exploding flash powder causes the test tube full of sensitive nitroglycerine to DETONATE violently, and this releases a much larger SHOCK into the surrounding Tannerite, causing it to DETONATE as well!

An explosive train is sort of like a puzzle. You know where you start - a spark or flame, and where you want to end up - a mass of particular explosive going off, and you have to figure out what pieces you need to fill in the gap in the safest way possible. The hard part is minimizing the amount of PRIMARY explosive used. You want to keep as little of the hair-trigger stuff around as humanly possible.
>> No. 3271 ID: 8c1454
Ah, Ragnar Benson. The purportedly crazy Norwegian survivalist. Many of his books consist of neat ideas interspersed with incomplete crap. But he did do one book that I admire - Ragnar's Homemade Detonators.

http://www.operatorchan.org/z/src/Ragnars_Detonators.pdf

Why do I like this book? Well first I'll tell you what I DON'T like - the author relies heavily on HMTD explosive - an organic peroxide, for his blasting caps. I hate organic peroxides. HMTD is the most stable of the bunch, but is still an unpredictable bitch and VERY unforgiving, and he uses multiple GRAMS of it in his caps. So you're aware, a HALF GRAM of primary explosive is considered by the actual explosives industry to be way too goddamned much for safety. You can do it his way, but you'd better keep your asshole firmly puckered.

But what I DO love about that book is the detail in which he goes into the physical design of the blasting cap - what kind of tubing to use, how to line it, how to crimp it, and how to assemble both fused and electric detonators. He might be using amateur materials and a dangerous primary explosive, but his designs are very professional in quality.

I'm going to start with my own take on a detonator, and then a modified version of one of his, and finally we'll look at how to make HMTD if you want to try his way.
>> No. 3272 ID: 8c1454
File 136374854487.png - (273.89KB , 1360x768 , detonator press.png )
3272
>The Acid Man Detonator

You'll note that when I intend to show you something neat, I tend to build the pieces of it up for you first. I showed you how to make nitroglycerine, nitrocellulose, and mononitrotoluene first, and then how it could be used for Nobel 808, as one example.

Well we just covered three others: Picric acid, lead picrate, and ammonium picrate. So guess what? Yes, these are the three ingredients in my detonator. You will need to prepare them in the following amounts:

>THREE grams of Lead Picrate will serve as the primary.
>TWO grams of phlegmatized Picric Acid will serve as the secondary.
>ONE gram of Ammonium Picrate will serve as the built-in booster.

To use in this detonator, you should phlegmatize (de-sensitize and bind) the Picric Acid crystals a bit. This is done by melting together one part by weight paraffin wax and 3 parts petroleum jelly in a beaker on a war hotplate. To this add 9 parts of Picric Acid crystals and gently knead them together for fifteen minutes until they become a thick, sticky mass. Allow it to cool, then measure out TWO GRAMS for use in the detonator.

Ragnar had the right idea using thin aluminum tubing, but I like a bit bigger critical diameter than he does. Source yourself some aluminum tubing from a hobby shop. I like mine to be 5/16" diameter, but 1/4" can work. Carefully cut the tubing into 4" lengths with a fine hacksaw. Why so long, compared to that pretty picture of short blasting caps from the post above? We have to take into account the HUMAN FACTOR. At some point you're probably going to fuck this up - and the more distance between your hand and the explosive train packed into the bottom of the tube, the better.

The next step is to coat the tube, inside and out, with an acid resistant material. Pour a tall graduated cylinder full of clear lacquer, and dip the ENTIRE aluminum tube into it, clear down to the bottom of the cylinder. Remove it carefully, let it dry and apply a second coat the same way - this coats the tube inside and out, protecting from contact with the Picric Acid. While the second coat is still wet, use the very edge of a set of flat-nosed pliers to crimp the bottom of the tube tightly shut. Crimp it as close to the end as possible, and make sure it forms a tight, straight seam. Dip the whole outside end of the tube in clear lacquer and let dry to ensure a good external seal, then put a few small drops of lacquer down into the bottom of the tube with an eyedropper to seal it internally. This end will be the bottom of the tube, and will contain the explosive train.

Next you will need the following:

Silicone caulk.
A 2 foot length of cannon fuse.
A quarter gram of any smokeless gunpowder.
A pair of crimping pliers.
A cotton ball.
The Blasting Cap Press

>The Blasting Cap Press

This is not an optional piece of equipment. For a good detonator, the explosives within have to be pressed to very high density. SQUASHING a sensitive primary explosive while praying it decides not to go off, is NOT something one does with bare hands!

A good design for the press is illustrated here:

http://www.operatorchan.org/z/src/improvised_munitions_handbook_v3.pdf

See page 232 of 273. It's nothing but a long 2X4 fixed to a hinge, with a wooden blast shield and a holder for the detonator and a tamping peg. Take your time, put your internet porn away, and go build it. If you try this without one, you're retarded or worse. And you WILL die.

The explosives are deposited into the detonator tube in layers. You'll add half of each explosive, press, and then add the other half and press again before moving on to the next explosive.

>Start with one gram of Ammonium Picrate

Add half a gram of the ammonium picrate to the tube, trickling it in and very gently tapping the side of the tube to make it settle to the bottom. Insert the tamping rod, get back behind the blast shield, and gently, slowly, pull down on the end of the 2X4 until you have all your weight on it. Hold there for five seconds. CAREFULLY, SLOWLY, take your weight off the 2X4 and gently lift up, removing the tamping rod from the detonator body, being careful not to jiggle, scrape, or drop it roughly.

Add the remaining half gram of ammonium picrate to the detonator tube as before, and repeat the pressing.

>The second layer is two grams phlegmatized Picric Acid.

Divide the two grams of TNP you prepared earlier into equal halves. Add the first half to the the tube, gently prodding it in with a plastic knife or similar. Set the tamping rod, and very, VERY gently press it into place using all your body weight as you did for the ammonium picrate. Withdraw the tamp, add the second half of the picric acid, and repeat.

>The final layer is three grams of lead picrate.

This is the most dangerous step. You're going to add this one in THIRDS, pressing at each step. Be ESPECIALLY CAREFUL not to jostle the press as you're putting your weight on it or taking it off. Press slowly, gently, and evenly. Watch out for the tamping rod itself after each pressing - it will have explosive residue from the lead picrate on it, and CAN blow you up!

>Finishing and arming

The final step is to add the initiator - the fuse assembly. On top of the layer of Lead Picrate, gently add just a pinch of any commercial smokeless gunpowder. This is to give the end of the fuse a little extra "oomph!" to make sure everything goes to plan. That would be a lot of work to waste on a fizzle, right? Don't tamp the gunpowder - leave it loose.

Once the gunpowder is added, gently place the fuse all the way down inside, and make sure it is embedded in the gunpowder and approximately touching the lead picrate near the inside wall of the detonator casing. Insert a piece of the cotton ball into the end of the detonator tube next to the fuse - just enough for a snug fit, and use a wooden dowel to gently press it down into the tube. Don't tamp it hard, just press. It is only there to retain the fuse. The final step is to put a moderate glob of silicone caulk down the tube, and likewise press it into the bottom gently with a wooden dowel.

Set the detonator aside in a cool, dry place so that the silicone can dry for a day. As it dries, it will swell up in the tube and seal the assembly together perfectly. The detonator is now finished.

The burning fuse will flash-ignite the gunpowder, ensuring a hefty spark to ignite the lead picrate. Lead picrate explodes from flame with just enough power that three grams of it can reliably "high order" detonate a small amount of Picric Acid. The Picric Acid, in turn, has just enough explosive power that two grams of it can reliably detonate ammonium picrate. And as we can see by its high detonation velocity of 7150m/s, ammonium picrate releases a lot of energy when it detonates - enough to set off just about any other explosive you please!
>> No. 3273 ID: 5b9651
File 136382061770.jpg - (33.00KB , 323x229 , blastingcap-spotlight.jpg )
3273
I should also add that my detonator is massively overbuilt in terms of payload. What is in there is a ton of explosive by cap standards - it'll even detonate straight ammonium nitrate. It is by no means typical.

In fact, one could choose to leave out the ammonium picrate and picric acid entirely for detonating many common bulk explosives like dynamite or TNT. Three grams of pressed lead picrate can set off the majority of them all by itself.

>the more you know.jpg
>> No. 3280 ID: 653a84
File 136386162078.jpg - (182.51KB , 1024x768 , 1509925-ultra_bolter.jpg )
3280
>>3257
>Ammonium Picrate
>This is the only readily-made explosive capable of withstanding the shock of projectile impact.

Holy shit why didn't I think of this sooner?
>> No. 3286 ID: 5b9651
File 136389135926.jpg - (8.71KB , 300x240 , Boxer-Primer.jpg )
3286
>A modification of Ragnar's Idea.

In Ragnar's book, he goes into a very keen example for a ready-made explosive. He claims that by salvaging the primer material from "seven large pistol primers" you can pack it into a detonator and have an explosive ready to go. Like a lot of things, he leaves out too much goddamned info.

First off, not all large pistol primers are the same. Most DO, however, use the same main ingredient - Lead Styphnate.

>Lead styphnate (lead 2,4,6-trinitroresorcinate, C6HN3O8Pb ), whose name is derived from styphnic acid, is an explosive used as a component in primer and detonator mixtures for less sensitive secondary explosives.

>There are two forms of lead styphnate: six-sided monohydrate crystals and small rectangular crystals. Lead styphnate varies in color from yellow to brown. Lead styphnate is particularly sensitive to fire and the discharge of static electricity. When dry, it can be readily detonated by static discharges from the human body. The longer and narrower the crystals, the more susceptible lead styphnate is to static electricity. Lead styphnate does not react with metals and is less sensitive to shock and friction than mercury fulminate or lead azide. Lead styphnate is only slightly soluble in water and methyl alcohol and may be neutralized by a sodium carbonate solution. It is stable in storage, even at elevated temperatures.

Sounds pretty good for something you can just buy OTC, doesn't it? Too bad, because lead styphnate by itself doesn't work well as a detonator. Yes, it explodes - but its detonation velocity and brisance are both weak-to-moderate. That limits it's usefulness.

Not only that, but firearm primer material can contain all sorts of shit besides lead styphnate depending on what the manufacturer wanted. You can't just grab a random box off the shelf and get to it.

So seeing this, I formulated a plan of attack.

First I went through several pages of research on different Primers, until I found one that had the fewest number of ingredients.

>CCI / Speer Large Pistol Primers contain only pure Lead Styphnate mixed with a small amount of Barium Nitrate. the Barium compound is a moderate oxidizer, and increases the power of the Styphnate. Specially you want the following primers:

.50 Cal. Primers #35
M36A2
M115
M115 Mod A & Mod B
9MM NATO #82 Primers
M34

No others are suitable for salvage.

We also need to use a sensitive secondary, to make sure the weak explosion from the styphnate will have enough oomph to set off whatever bulk explosive you're using. In my idea, we will use a small amount of ETN - about a half-gram. ETN has a known property of "enhancing" its reaction when in contact with aluminum.

The "Acid Ragnar Detonator" is made in the same type of body tube as the previous example, but instead we will add components in this order:

>500mg of pure ETN, tightly wrapped up in a small piece of aluminum foil, like a little Hershey's Kiss, just big enough to fit down the detonator tube.

This little wad is carefully pressed into the bottom of the detonator using the Blasting Cap Press. It should be pressed several times to ensure compactness. Remember - add and remove weight from the lever SLOWLY, CAREFULLY, and SMOOTHLY. Insert a long ice pick down the detonator tube by using the Blasting Cap Press, and carefully poke a hole into the compacted pellet of ETN. Alternatively, a tiny ball of aluminum foil can be pressed down the tube and compacted first, and the ETN added on top of it and pressed.


>3 grams of Lead Styphnate salvaged from appropriate CCI primers.

This is added to the tube in three parts, pressing carefully after each one. Styphnate is INCREDIBLY static sensitive, so use anti-static spray liberally on everything a few minutes before handling it. This stuff is your primary, so remember to press CAREFULLY. Styphnate is fairly safe to bump if you're gentle, but you have to avoid heating or sparking it at all costs.

After the pressing add the pinch of gunpowder, fuse, cotton ball, and silicone sealant as before.
>> No. 3287 ID: 5b9651
>>3286

Now there are a couple potential problems that we should look into. The first is the potential acidity of the Styphnate reacting with the ETN (THAT WOULD BE VERY BAD!). A good exorcise would be to test the recovered styphnate for acidity and neutralize it with a wash of baking soda solution if it comes up acid.

The other problem could be a gap formed by poking a hole into the ETN before adding the styphnate. Packing the ETN on top of a pressed ball of AL foil and then simply adding styphnate to the top might be the superior way to go.

Lastly, we might consider binding both the ETN and the Styphnate by adding a tiny bit of wax to each, on the order of 5% by weight. That would help them press a bit better, but you'd be skirting the limits of power by adding inerts to the styphnate.
>> No. 3299 ID: 28e84c
>>3280
By extension of this sudden realization, I wish to learn about delayed fuses. Specifically a delay of 3-4" worth of travel time in soft target.
>> No. 3303 ID: 529cf1
>>3299
why even bother when you have hydroshock ammunition etc. readily available?
>> No. 3304 ID: 5b9651
File 136399266830.png - (283.61KB , 715x638 , hmtd.png )
3304
>>3287

Next we'll cover Ragnar's own detonator explosive. Hexamethylene Triperoxide Diamine. HMTD.

HMTD is a peroxide explosive, meaning that it consists of a peroxide group bonded to a chemical fuel. The problem with a peroxide is that the bond is very weak and unstable compared to other explosive bonds like nitration products. It inly takes a tiny input of energy to break one of the bonds and start the explosion reaction - and sometimes the bonds are weak enough that one will just fall apart, making the material seemingly explode with no cause visible.

Of all the peroxide explosives, HMTD is the closest to being safe, and its still more sensitive in every way than raw nitroglycerine. My first piece of advice to you, is don't make the stuff. My second piece of advice to you, is if you choose to ignore the first piece of advice, treat this stuff like it holds your very own soul within it. You get no second chances with this shit.

>HMTD

Detonation Velocity: ~8000m/s
Brisance: Very high
Sensitivity: UNPREDICTABLE AND EXTREMELY DANGEROUS!
Volatility: Moderate. For best results use each batch within 30 days of making it.
Toxicity: Highly toxic if ingested or absorbed through the skin. Wear gloves.

>Materials
Hexamine Tablets (from your stash of precursors)
6% "Hair Bleach" hydrogen peroxide (big pharmacies will have this)
Citric Acid (this comes in the form of white crystals in a big salt-shaker bottle. Look in the Canning section.)

First step is to isolate and purify the hexamine.

>Crush seven hexamine fuel tablets to a fine powder in the mortar and pestle. Add the powered tablets to a beaker of boiling distilled water and stir to separate the waxes and binders from the hexamine. Filter the liquid twice to remove all solid impurities, then evaporate most of the liquid by boiling. Let all the remaining liquid evaporate, and the white powder left will be pure hexamine.


>Measure 9 teaspoons of 6% hydrogen peroxide into a beaker and chill it to 5 degrees Celsius in the freezer. Prepare an ice bath while you're waiting for it to chill.

>Transfer the beaker of hydrogen peroxide to the ice bath, and maintain the temperature at near 5C. NEVER let the temperature above 10C! VERY slowly and carefully, add and dissolve 2 level teaspoons of pure hexamine in the ice cold peroxide. Stir gently until all the hexamine is dissolved, being very careful not to scrape the inside walls or bottom of the beaker with the stirring rod - that can actually create enough friction to detonate the entire beaker. YES, I AM SERIOUS, and NO, I am NOT exaggerating!

>Maintain the temperature at 5C for one hour. This can be tricky because you don't want the liquid to freeze, but have to keep it near freezing. You might be best served adjusting your freezer so that it holds a steady temperature of 5C, and just transfer the beaker to it after dissolving the hexamine. Either way, as it chills, transfer four and one half teaspoons of citric acid to your clean mortar and pestle and grind it very fine.

>After one hour, VERY GENTLY add the citric acid to the cold hexamine solution. I can not stress this enough - trickle it in VERY SLOWLY and with the MOST GENTLE STIRRING POSSIBLE. The liquid is essentially already a hair-trigger explosive, and you're pouring shit into it and agitating it. KEEP YOUR DISTANCE, and for God's sake WEAR HEAVY DUTY GLOVES AND GLASSES!

>Place the resultant solution back in the freezer at a slightly warmer 15 degrees Celsius and chill it for 24 hours. A crystalline material will precipitate out and sink to the bottom. This material is crude HMTD.

>After turning the room temperature down to 60 degrees Fahrenheit and drowning the entire room, including your shoes, in anti-static spray, very carefully allow the solution to warm to room temperature. CAREFULLY pour it through filter paper to collect the crystals.

>Place the crystals on a clean filter, and wash them twice with cold water and once with a 5% baking soda solution to neutralize any traces of citric acid.

>Transfer the neutralized HMTD to a new, clean filter and then wash it again with a three or four healthy doses of cold distilled water.

Set the crystals aside to dry in a cool, dry, dark place. the result is pure HMTD explosive. It is INCREDIBLY SENSITIVE. It can go off from being touched, stirred, HEATED ANYWHERE ABOVE 70 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT (yes, you read that right. It is unstable at room temperature), exposed to direct sunlight, or looked at funny. It won't keep more than a few days if warm - for longer storage put it in the freezer, and don't ever keep it longer than 30 days or it may spontaneously detonate.

If you kill yourself, don't blame me - I warned you in the first paragraph.
>> No. 3305 ID: 28e84c
>>3303
ROCKET PROPELLED GRENADE MACHINE GUN

any questions?
>> No. 3319 ID: 5b9651
File 136415715015.gif - (79.55KB , 382x376 , b8a.gif )
3319
Now that we've covered some amateur approaches, you're probably asking yourself (as you should be) "so if this the amateur level stuff for detonators, what do the professionals use?"

Lets go ahead and jump into that for a minute.

If you were smart, you would already be asking questions like "so if this stuff is so sensitive and dangerous, how do more people not get blown up?" or "So wait, an artillery shell has a detonator in it, and you can literally shoot it out of a cannon without it going off. What do they use that's so safe?"

The answer to that question is one word: Lead Azide.

Azides are a very obscure explosive compared to how goddamned useful they are. After a hundred years of trial and error, somebody back in the 40s stumbled onto an explosive that is moderately powerful, moderately brisant, very good at detonating other explosives in small quantities, and you can quite literally jump up and down on a pile of it and it won't go off. It only goes off to a hot spark or flame. It is the Primary ingredient in ALL commercial and military detonators produced today. And the best part is that you only need milligrams of the stuff. 100mg of Lead Azide pressed on top of a gram of PETN is the standard recipe for a #8 commercial blasting cap. 150mg of Lead Azide pressed on top of a gram and a half of desensitized RDX is the standard for US Military detonators.

So, why hasn't ole' AM covered it yet?

Because good fucking luck making any.

Lead Azide is made from the reaction of two precursor chemicals: Lead Nitrate, and Sodium Azide. Neither of these are easy to come by.

There is actually one source for civilian Sodium Azide, and it isn't where you'd expect. Inside the airbags of older, pre-2000 cards, the explosive gas generator that inflates the airbag uses a charge of about a third of a kilo of Sodium Azide. To get at it, you have to find a junked car whose airbags weren't deployed - break into the steering column at the base, and find the heavy gas generator - a heavy metal box with slats or screens under the airbag. It will be welded and sealed, so a half hour with a SawZall and hacksaw blades, some cussing, and being very careful not to set the thing off will net you enough Sodium Azide for a couple hundred detonators worth of Lead Azide. This is the only known source for Sodium Azide that is not tightly restricted.

The Lead Nitrate is another matter. You're not making this one, so you'll have to buy it. Check out the pricing.

http://www.onlinesciencemall.com/lead-nitrate-laboratory-chemical-reagent-30-grams.html

That's five bucks for THIRTY GRAMS. Expensive shit.

So given the two main precursors, how is Lead Azide made?

>Lead Azide
Detonation Velocity: ~5200m/s
Brisance: Moderately high
Stability: Very high for a primary - good for long term storage.
Sensitivity: Mild to moderate - avoid heat, flame, spark, and friction. Fairly resistant to shock and pressure, but quite sensitive to sparks.
Toxicity: Highly toxic - may be absorbed through the skin, eyes, and mouth contact. Causes liver toxicity.

>Chemicals
Lead Nitrate
Sodium Azide
Sodium Hydroxide (ordinary lye, check for Red Devil lye in the cleaning aisle)
Dextrin - Pyrotechnic grade grade dextrin is required to prevent the formation of large crystal clumps in the Azide. If you leave it out, the mixture will self destruct from internal friction and take you along with it. You can find Dextrin here: http://www.hobbychemicalsupply.com/servlet/the-18/hobby-chemicals-dextrin-powder/Detail

Lead Azide is made by creating two solutions in two beakers: Formula A and Formula B. We then combine A and B and the result is Lead Azide.

>Dissolve 2.33 g of sodium azide and 0.058 g of sodium hydroxide in 70 mL of water by placing them in a flask, stirring together gently, and then corking the flask and shaking hard until all dissolves. This is solution A. Transfer this solution to a Separatory Funnel mounted above a hot water bath.

>Dissolve 6.9 g of lead nitrate and 0.35 g of dextrin in 90 mL water in a 250-mL beaker, Make some 10% sodium hydroxide solution by adding 1gram of hydroxide to ten grams of distilled water. Add 1 or 2 drops of the 10% sodium hydroxide, stir gently for a minute, and test the solution with litmus paper - you want a pH of about 5. This is solution B. Leave it in the beaker where you made it.

>VERY GENTLY heat solution B to 60-65C in a hot water bath and agitate it with a plastic stirring utensil. The stirring should be as efficient as possible to prevent the formation of large crystals. Stirring, while vigorous, should not produce any spattering of the mixture and the stirring should not rub against the walls of the beaker. FRICTION FROM THE STIRRING ROD WILL CAUSE THE ENTIRE BEAKER TO EXPLODE! BE CAREFUL!

>Gently, drop by drop from the separatory funnel, add solution A to the beaker of solution B while stirring and keeping the temperature constant at 60-65C. It should take about ten minutes to combine all of the solution.

>Remove the beaker from the water bath and continue stirring the mixture in the beaker while cooling to room temperature, this will take about 1 hour. As it cools, a precipitate will form and turn the mix cloudier. That is a cloud of small crystals of crude Lead Azide.

>Once the mixture has cooled to room temperature, let the Lead Azide crystals settle to the bottom of the beaker and carefully pour the beaker of material through a filter to collect the crystals. Wash the crystals with 50ml of water, then transfer them to a clean filter and wash with two more 50ml doses.

Spread the crystals thin on a ceramic plate and gently heat in the oven to 149 degrees for 8 hours. The dry mixture will be about 5 grams of small, opaque crystals of pure Lead Azide explosive.

>Five grams. All that work for five measely grams.
>> No. 3331 ID: 28e84c
>>3319
well, 5 grams is still 50 detonators, right?

>FRICTION FROM THE STIRRING ROD WILL CAUSE THE ENTIRE BEAKER TO EXPLODE! BE CAREFUL!
oh god this scares the shit out of me (and it probably should)
>> No. 3334 ID: 5b9651
>>3331

Not quite 50. Since our steering wheel sodium azide isn't going to be completely pure, the resulting Lead Azide isn't quite as industrial strength as the big boy stuff. We're probably looking at more like 300mg per detonator, plus an energetic secondary like a half gram of phlegmatized, heavily neutralized ETN for reliable detonation. I'd also put a little bit of Lead Styphnate on top of the Azide - just a pinch, to give it a nice hot flash and make sure the Azide high-order detonates.
>> No. 3365 ID: 28e84c
>>3334
Is there then any way to make the pure ingredients for industrial grade explosive?
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