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2696 No. 2696 ID: 8c1454
As decreed by the ancient profits of Threadology - welcome to the Acid Man explosives thread!

Some of this will be interesting, some of it will be boring, and some of it will be downright dangerous. Whichever you like best, all students in the Chemistry Class are required to


Explosives. Surely if there is a contention issue concerning possession by we mere "civilians" it is this. Nevermind that most of the great chemistry breakthroughs accomplished in this art over the centuries have been made by nerdy, unlicensed, obsessive men working in their kitchens and not in the great corporate laboratories of the world. Its amazing how the people will create something, and then the government has the right to claim it as their own domain and seize it from the populace. "For their own good", of course.

But I digress. All political opinions aside, explosives are not unlawful to play with provided one abides by the requirements of the law. The first thing we are going to discuss is legality.

>The absolute purpose of this thread is to be informative and educational, for the benefit of this community. NOTHING, and I can not emphasize this enough, that is presented in this thread is intended to be applied by any person or organization, including the author, in any manner which would be inconsistent with any local, state, or federal law under any circumstances. I ask and encourage the mods to keep a close watch on this thread and remove any content that violates this disclaimer, no matter who posts it.

The first thing to know when it concerns explosives law, is that you need a license to really get into the art. A Federal Explosives License is actually very easy to get! I know some of our community are HAM radio OPERATORs, and the difficulty of the requirement is actually very comparable. Let us look at the paperwork:

>The application for an ATF Explosives License:

>Pertinent regulations and rules:

As you can see, the license to manufacture explosives costs a whopping $200. Chickenfeed compared to the trouble you'll be in for messing with this stuff much without one. If you only want to play around with explosives you purchase from other manufacturers, the "Limited Permit" classification is only $25! The paperwork is not difficult and only takes a few minutes to fill out and submit. You'll have ATF inspectors check out your location and give you a quick interview, and they'll give you a copy of the Regulations book and send you on your merry way. Easy peezy - so don't fuck it up! If you intend to store explosives for any length of time you will need a qualified magazine. These can be purchased for big bucks, or you can make one out of sand, cinderblocks, an old wall safe, and concrete in a safe outdoor location. It doesn't have to be big - I know a guy who built one for $250 that's only 1'x2'x10" deep - plenty big for an experimenter. The requirements are covered in the regulations - it has to be a certain size with a certain wall thickness and multiple locks, and be placed a safe distance from inhabitable buildings.

With the legal stuff outlined, lets take a look at the very basic chemistry that goes in in an explosive.

>What is an explosive?
>What are "High" and "Low" explosives?
>What is "detonation" as opposed to "deflagration"?
>What does "high order" mean?
>What are "confinement" and "critical diameter" and what role do they play?
>What kinds of chemical reactions (nitration, oxidation, reduction) make explosives?
>What chemicals are required to make these reactions?
>What are the general types of explosives (primary, secondary, booster, bulk) and what are they used for?

Welcome to the Acid Man Explosives Thread. Buckle your seatbelts, because V-Tech is about to kick in, yo!
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>> No. 2701 ID: 5b9651
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>what is an explosive?

The practical answer is that an explosive is any material which can be induced to a state of rapid, self-sustaining chemical reaction and which produced an amount of pressure and gaseous emission greater than the original volume of the material.

"Anything that can be chemically made to go BOOM!"

Nearly every person in the US works with explosives on a daily basis without realizing it. That 20 gallon gas tank on the bottom of your car could blast a building into toothpicks if it were improperly applied! Gasoline is a very powerful FUEL, and when combined in the right proportions with an OXIDIZER, like air, and then CONFINED in a cylinder and provided with some source of IGNITION like a spark plug, then you get an EXPLOSION.

Seeing a pattern there?

For most materials, you can not make a blanket statement of "this is an explosive with this much power blah blah blah" because the explosivity of a material is actually graphable as a curve. All of its attributes as an explosive are depended on varying levels of these four components:


When these things are all set up "just right" you can make anything from a gentle, heaving explosion, to a sharp, shattering explosion, to a complete dud that can not explode at all. Ever wonder what Octane in your gasoline is for? It raises the detonation threshold in your fuel. Inside your engine, you want the fuel to "deflagrate", which means that it explodes quickly but not at a rate exceeding the speed of sound. If the fuel DOES detonate (explodes quickly with a supersonic shockwave), the resulting shockwave from the explosion can damage your engine - this is actually the phenomenon of "engine knock" and why engine knock is a very bad thing. Its like stuffing your motor heads full of pipe bombs!

So what the hell is an "explosion" anyway?

I want you to imagine one of the old Bug Bunny cartoons. Bugs is on a pirate ship and he sneaks up onto the deck with a barrel of gunpowder. He uncorks the end and starts pouring a little trail of gunpowder from the deck, down the stairs, and into the hold. His powder line stops at a big pile of gunpowder barrels. Yosemite Sam is up top though, and thinking he'll get the better of Bugs, he lights the end of the powder train with a match.

The gunpowder BURNS slowly, like a fuse, trailing across the deck and down the stairs. The reason why gunpowder burns is because within its mixture it has the two ingredients needed to cause combustion. A fuel (charcoal, in gunpowder's case) and something to provide oxygen to the internal fire (saltpeter, or sodium nitrate, releases oxygen when it burns). Since the gunpowder is just poured in a line and not confined, it burns at a slow, steady rate all the way down into the hold. But what happens when it lights the packed barrels of gunpowder down there? THE WHOLE SHIP IS BLOWN TO BITS!

The reason is because the barrels CONFINE the gunpowder. The burn rate of an explosive is controlled partly by its density - how packed together it is. The tighter it is packed, the more easily the "fire" inside can reach and ignite each bit of explosive. When you confine an explosive and then ignite it, the resulting gasses have nowhere to go! So they CRUSH the explosive material together with a spike of pressure. This ramps the density of the explosive through the roof in a split second, and now you have all that fuel and oxidizer packed so closely together that the "fire" inside it (that we perceive as an explosion because it happens so fast) can "jump" from each particle of gunpowder to the next VERY quickly compared to the unconfined "fuse". So quickly in fact, that the material appears to burn up all at once, finally rupturing the confining barrel due to the pressure and EXPLODING.
>> No. 2702 ID: 8adb5a
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When are they gonna get to the fireworks factory?
>> No. 2703 ID: 0a488a
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>> No. 2704 ID: 8c1454
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There are two basic classifications of explosives from a practical point of view.

>You have "explosive compounds and mixtures".
>and "molecular explosives."

The difference is in the structure.

In a compound or mixture explosive, you have a combination of two or more different materials. The key components are a fuel and an oxidizer. Fuels can be anything which is combustible, and oxidizers can be any material (including raw oxygen gas) which can quickly supply the appropriate volume of oxygen to the fuel. Some examples and their components are:

>Black powder - charcoal (fuel) and saltpeter (oxidizer).
>Cheddite - Vaseline (fuel) and potassium chlorate (oxidizer).
>LOX Explosive - Coal dust (fuel) and liquid oxygen (oxidizer).
>NMNA - Nitromethane (fuel) and red fuming nitric acid (oxidizer).
>Fuel-Air Explosive (FAE) - A combustible material such as ethylene oxide or sawdust (fuel) that is released in a large cloud so that it can mix with a large volume of ambient air (oxidizer).

The other type of explosive is a "molecular explosive." These are materials who have a single molecular structure that incorporates enough oxygen atoms to react its own fuel atoms. Because the fuel and oxidizer are bonded into one molecule, these can be VERY dense materials from a standpoint of energy transmission (the atoms are RIGHT NEXT TO EACHOTHER from the start and confinement only helps). That tends to make them the most powerful types of explosive. They can also be molecules that are unstable, and who will undergo some energy-releasing chain reaction when the weakest bonds are broken by an input of energy. Examples include:

>Nitroglycerine - glycerine molecules (fuel) bonded with nitro molecules (N03 - oxidizer. When the molecule breaks down from some input of energy, the 3 oxygen atoms separate from the nitro group due to the weak chemical bond and combust the fuel).
>Trinitrotoluene (TNT) - Toluene molecules (fuel) bonded with THREE nitro molecules (N03 - oxidizer) each.
>Ammonium nitrate - Formula NH4NO3. An ammonia molecule and a nitro molecule break down in a reaction to form nitrogen gas and water, releasing energy in the process.
>Erythritol tetranitrate (ETN) - Erythritol is a sugar (fuel), and molecularly bonds to FOUR nitro groups (oxidizer), providing enough oxygen to combust its own fuel mass with some free oxygen left over.

There is a certain amount of oxygen that has to be combined with a given fuel to combust it completely. The more complete the combustion, the greater the relative power of the explosive. This ratio is affected by the surface area of the fuel material. The more surface are of the fuel in contact with the oxidizer, the faster the fuel can combust, and the faster the combustion the more powerful the explosion. The reason why FAEs, for instance, have to be dispersed as a vapor or dust cloud is because to actually explode the particles of fuel have to be very small. The smaller the particles, the bigger the average surface area of the cloud and so the more oxygen it can use from the atmosphere.

Most explosives also have something called a "critical diameter." Meaning the mass of the explosive has to have a cross section of a certain minimum size, otherwise the explosion reaction will peter out because it can't set off enough new explosive at once to keep itself going. Generally speaking, the more powerful and sensitive the explosive, the smaller the critical diameter (if its easy to set off, and transmits a lot of power, its unlikely to run out of gas in the middle of the reaction. Makes sense.) ETN, for instance, is sensitive and very powerful and has a critical diameter of just a few millimeters. Ammonium nitrate is insensitive and relatively weak, so its critical diameter is measured in inches.

The difference between fire and explosion is the speed of reaction. Remember that. The faster it goes, the bigger the boom. All explosive science really is, is figuring out ways to make things burn faster.

>Take a fuel that burns.
>Add an oxidizer, so it doesn't have to take time getting oxygen from the air around it.
>Bind the fuel and oxidizer into a single molecule so they start very close together.
>Pack the material tightly so the explosion can jump from unit to unit faster.
>Confine it so the pressure of the explosion itself will make the explosive more dense and make the jumps even shorter as it goes.
>Make sure the mass has a big enough cross section that the reaction can't run out of juice before it finishes.
>Initiate it with a powerful spark of energy to set off as much of it as possible all at once, transmitting more energy more quickly across a bigger front.

You now understand how an explosive works.
>> No. 2707 ID: 5b9651
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Now I want you to bear in mind that my explanations above are couched in layman's terms. They do convey a correct picture of what is happening in the explosive process, but if you really want to dig into the chemistry there is plenty more to learn. You can learn how a lot of the energy from a nitro-molecule explosive comes from the breaking of the strong nitrogen bond, the chemical definition of a compound explosive versus how I have described it, and plenty more. My goal is to make it all understandable. If you really want to nerd out over it, go grab some college Chem books and get to work! Its a fun, if slightly taxing science.

Next we are going to discuss safety.

>MOTHERFUCKING SAFETY! ****************

Take a good look at your hands. I want you to admire them for a moment. The dexterity of the fingers, the sensitivity of the tips and the palms. Trace the muscles in each with your other hand, noticing how the ones in your fapping hand seem a little bit bigger and meatier. Think of all the wonderful things you use them for - pulling a trigger, petting a kitty, warming your girlfriend up for sexytimes, pimp-slapping a distinguished urban gentleman, holding your slippery dragon dildo.

Do you want to keep those hands? Then read this section very fucking carefully.

>There is nothing about explosives that can't kill you dead as a hammer. If you're lucky, your first mistake will ONLY blow your fappers off and you'll live to Captain Hook another day.

Lets look at just the basic risks we're dealing with in making explosives.

>You're using concentrated ACID in large quantities. It is powerful enough to dissolve your flesh to the bone in seconds.
>Your reactions are happening in glass vessels that make wonderfully huge clouds of razor-sharp shrapnel if they burst.
>Many of the reactions produce volumes of incredibly poisonous gasses - more than the merest whiff will melt your lungs into taffy and there's no fixing you.
>Reactions can go out of control very VERY quickly if you don't maintain precise control of temperatures and chemical addition rates. This is referred to as "runaway." Think of it like the word "meltdown" if the thread were about nuclear reactors and you have an idea how bad that is.
>The explosives themselves can be set off by the tiniest spark of static electricity, jostling them too hard, direct sunlight, indirect heat, leaving chemical residue in them (not washing them enough), leaving acid residue on them, accidentally letting them come in contact with a whole host of metal containers, chemical residues, or even body fluids.
>Many of the materials and explosives are highly toxic themselves, causing everything from acute kidney failure to brain cancer depending on how you expose yourself to them. Yum!

One mistake, you're fucking dead. End of story, end of thread. Savvy?

So how do we, as responsible amateur chemists, negate and mitigate the possibilities for catastrophe?


Here's is the Center for Disease Control's Chemistry Lab Safety Manual.

Download it and FUCKING READ IT. Then read it again. Look down at your fapping hand. Did you read and understand all of it? Look at your hand again. Are you SURE?

Some general rules from my own playbook:

>Thoroughly clean and air-dry all glassware and tools before the experiment, even if you already cleaned them before.
>Use fresh glassware for every step of a chemical process. Clean all dirty glassware when you're totally finished - never try to clean and reuse on the fly.
>Keep a can of anti-static spray handy. Apply it to yourself and your work area liberally before you start, and give yourself a freshening spritz (from a safe distance from the chemicals) about halfway through the experiment.
>Know the chemicals you're working with (for instance, picric acid will EXPLODE if you put it in a container with even trace amounts of copper). Or if it touches copper. Or if copper looks at it funny. Picric acid only tolerates PURE aluminum and glass. DO YOUR HOMEWORK. Google "materials safety data sheet" for every chemical you're using and making and read them before you ever start.
>Use an electric hotplate for heating chemicals. NEVER GAS. Use a double boiler for heating materials, NEVER APPLY DIRECT HEAT. NEVER HAVE AN OPEN FLAME EVEN IN THE SAME BUILDING. That means kill pilot lights on your appliances too.
>Use the restroom and eat a small snack an hour before you start working. No food or bathroom breaks while chemicals are reacting, and some reactions take a while.
>Wear eyeglasses at a minimum and a full transparent face shield if possible.
>Do you own any soft body armor, OPERATOR? Then wear it.
>LONG SLEEVES. Buy an actual labcoat preferably - they're not expensive and are made the way they are for reasons.
>Put on nitrile gloves, and then heavy rubber dishwashing gloves on top of that.
>Ventilate the FUCK out of your lab area. All windows and doors open and multiple fans pushing a through-current of air. If possible have your work area right below an open window with a box fan sucking out fumes at full blast.
>TWO fire extinguishers - both chemical type. One at the table and one by the exit.
>A "dump vat" consisting of a 3 or 4 gallon plastic tub full of cold water and ice. If a reaction goes runaway you have about max 4 seconds to dump it into the vat before it goes full Chernobyl on your ass.
>Keep your cell phone out and handy, with 9-1-1 on speed dial.

If you follow these rules and others, you can have fun with this stuff and keep all your digits intact. Even if you have an accident, the rules of lab safety mean the damage can be mitigated to the greatest extent possible. A heart attack and dump vat full of frothing acid eating a hole in the floor isn't as bad as blowing your chest cavity apart and burning your house down or accidentally huffing a face full of Phosgene.

Safety first, mah niggaz.
>> No. 2714 ID: 8c1454
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Terms and common basic procedures.

This is a glossary of specific terms that you will need to know.

>Recrystallization - The act of dissolving a material in a weak solvent and then dumping it quickly ("crashing it") into water, usually ice cold water, to cause the crystals of material to dissolve and reform. This is how you purify most explosives - the water dilutes and sweeps away any dangerous contaminants, separating them from the crystals which you then filter out. MAY BE REQUIRED SEVERAL TIMES PER BATCH.

>Washing - The act of flushing a material with large amounts of water to remove foreign particles and impurities.

>Neutralization - The act of washing a material with a solution of water and (typically) 1-5% sodium bicarbonate (baking soda). This neutralizes any remaining traces of acid in the material, purifying it. Acid residues can make an explosive spontaneously ignite hours or even days later. MAY BE REQUIRED SEVERAL TIMES PER BATCH.

>Mixing acids - The act of mixing acids with water or with other acids. Remember the rule - "Adding acid to watah? That's just like you aughta! Adding water to acid? Your dick will go flaccid!" When mixing two acids or adding acid to water you do it in TINY amounts, drop by drop unless specified otherwise. Unless you don't like your skin, or face, or eyes, or life. The only thing that sucks more than getting splashed by acid is getting splashed by frothing, foaming, BOILING acid because your dumb ass mixed them too quickly and they reacted.

>Nitration - A chemical reaction that attaches Nitro groups (NO3) to a molecule. The most common way of creating molecular explosives and the way most popular explosives are made.

>Dehydration - The chemical removal of water from a material during a reaction, usually by the presence of sulfuric acid. H2SO4 absorbs water on a molecular scale. Important for nitration reactions, because lots of molecular water is released during most nitrations. If you don't get it out of the way via dehydration the water molecules will bond to your shit and block the reaction. This is why you usually see sulfuric and nitric acid used together - the latter nitrates while the former gets rid of the water.

>Hydration - The bonding of water molecules to a molecular fuel. Happens naturally if you don't use sulfuric acid or something similar during a nitration. Makes the resulting material a completely useless dud.

>Distillation - The act of separating a chemical from a mixture by exploiting their different boiling points. The temperature of a flask is kept just above the boiling point of the desired material, and resulting vapor is collected and condensed, recovering that material only. Used for producing nitric acid and purifying sulfuric acid.

>In-situ nitration - The act of combining lots of sulfuric acid, an organic nitrate (like ammonium nitrate or potassium nitrate) and a material to be nitrated in the same container. The H2SO4 and the nitrate react to form nitric acid in the same vessel, with enough H2SO4 left to perform dehydration as well. Works for ETN and certain other materials. Very simple and easy to do, but not widely applicable.

Stoichiometric - A term roughly meaning "chemically balanced" for a particular combination. If you have exactly enough of material A to combine with material B and no bits left over, they are in stoichiometric amounts. For instance, Ammonium nitrate generates excess oxygen when it detonates. TNT actually generates less oxygen than it needs to FULLY combust. If you add just enough AN to your TNT so that the extra oxygen from the AN detonating is exactly the required amount to combust ALL the detonating TNT, then they are said to be present in stoichiometric amounts.

>Oxygen Balance - The amount of molecular oxygen present in a material relative the the amount fully required to combust its fuel molecules. Usually described as a percentage. Ammonium nitrate has a "positive" oxygen balance of 20% (releases 20% more oxygen than it needs), where as R-Salts has a "negative" oxygen balance of 55% (releases less oxygen than it needs, so it only combusts partially). Oxygen balance as close to 100% as possible is highly desirable in an explosive composition.

>Temperature window - Without boring you going into definitions of "average kinetic energy of molecules", you need to know that most reactions have to occur within certain temperature boundaries. Too cold and you might get some completely different, useless reaction. Too hot and it might be useless or it will probably just explode in your face. LITERALLY. Since most reactions create heat, sometimes LOTS OF HEAT, being able to balance the temperature of the reaction by controlling chemical addition rates, stirring rates, and cooling or heating equipment to keep it in the required window is one of the chemist's most valuable skills. In fact it might be the MOST valuable skill.
>> No. 2724 ID: 8c1454
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As many of you will be aware from my past rants, I despise the little "Anarchist Cookbook" kewlkidz that populate the internet. If you're wondering why I'm posting so much background and not delving into "recipes" is because an OPERATOR is a professional. If one wants to educate themselves in the art of explosives, then they need to approach it from a professional standpoint - legal, safe, sane, and careful.

Assuming you've read my posts above and are prepared to mind those four principles as your watchwords, let us now look at the reactions that can create explosives.


This is the big one. Most industrial explosives are created by combining some organic fuel into a chemical "nitro-compound" via the bonding of nitro groups to it. "Nitro" or "nitrate" anywhere in a chemical name is one of those keywords that should tell you immediately that you're dealing with a potential explosive material.

The key chemical used in the nitration of a material is concentrated Nitric Acid. Without boring you too much, the mechanic involves the reaction of the acid to create the "nitronium ion" that will bond to many organic chemicals. If the bond links to an oxygen atom in the material you get a nitrate, and if it bonds to a carbon atom you get a nitro-compound. The latter is usually, but not always, the more useful explosive, because the breaking of the carbon=nitrogen bond and subsequent liberation of the oxygen atoms generates a LOT of energy.

>Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive strong mineral acid. The pure compound is colorless, but older samples tend to acquire a yellow cast due to the accumulation of oxides of nitrogen. Most commercially available nitric acid has a concentration of 68%. When the solution contains more than 86% HNO3, it is referred to as fuming nitric acid. Depending on the amount of nitrogen dioxide present, fuming nitric acid is further characterized as white fuming nitric acid or red fuming nitric acid, at concentrations above 95%. Nitric acid is also commonly used as a strong oxidizing agent.

Nitric acid is one of those essential precursor chemicals that you will have to manufacture to make almost any useful explosive. It is restricted and expensive to purchase, but is fortunately very easy to make, even in significant quantities. In fact, if you know what you're doing, you can conjure significant amounts of it literally out of thin air.

In a nitration reaction, an organic material like the sugar-alcohol erythritol, is reacted with nitric acid. The reaction vessel also contains sulfuric acid to absorb the latent water the reaction produces. The reaction must take place within a narrow temperature window, which is difficult because nitration reactions generate lots of heat as the molecules break down and rearrange. The trick to nitration is to use a combination of stirring and cooling equipment to negate the heat generated by the addition of the material - adding the latter at a precise rate that will keep the temperature stable. Once all the material has been added and reacted, the acid mixture is poured into cold water and the crystals of crude erythritol tetranitrate, or ETN, are filtered out, washed, neutralized, recrystallized two or three times by dissolving in methyl alcohol, and dried to produce a final, useful product.

>Peroxidation Reactions

Some explosives, most notably the organic peroxide family, can be produced by a reaction that bonds a peroxide molecule to it.

>Hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD) is a high explosive organic compound, first synthesised in 1885 by Legler. The theorised structure lent itself well to acting as an initiating, or primary explosive. While still quite sensitive to shock and friction, it was relatively stable compared to other initiating explosives of the time, such as mercury fulminate, and proved to be relatively inexpensive and easy to synthesise. As such, it was quickly taken up as a primary explosive in mining applications. However, it has since been superseded by even more stable compounds such as tetryl. HMTD may be prepared by the reaction of an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide and hexamine in the presence of citric acid.

HMTD is the only organic peroxide you should EVER consider making. There are others, but they range from suicidal to omnicidal in terms of safety. Acetone Peroxide, as one example is a common Anarchist Cookbook type explosive that is so dangerous even middle eastern terrorists have learned never to touch the stuff. HMTD is about on par with the earliest primary explosive compounds, and has found some successful use in amateur detonators if handled with great care.

For our practical purposes we will be sticking chiefly to these two types of reactions. There are certain others that come into play like reduction reactions and we may look at those later on a case-by-case basis.
>> No. 2738 ID: de37e8
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Interesting topic, am patiently awaiting more.

As for glassware and such the laboratory equipment section on opticsplanet seems decent, would like to hear if others have recommendations on other online stores to use/avoid.

Also I recall that EOD Q&A thread had some info but I never saved it and cannot find the link. I'm sure SOMEONE has an archived copy or screencaps to put on /z/ or something.


>> No. 2739 ID: fc6c47
I don't have an archive of it, you you can still find the cached page here: http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:ivZ7uzLGKzkJ:m.operatorchan.org/w/res/2906.html+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us

Get it while you can.
>> No. 2740 ID: 8c1454
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Glassware and chemicals

Since were only looking at lab experiments at the moment, the first thing you need to work with these wonders of modern chemistry is a modern chemistry set - glassware.

There are many good sources online, but I can give you an overview of what you're going to need for these experiments.

>A double boiler can be made by pouring a layer of oval glass beads into a stainless steel pot. Just enough to loosely cover the bottom. This prevents direct heat from reaching a beaker placed on top. Don't use marbles, as your beaker might roll around on them.

>An ice bath for cooling can be made the same way as the double boiler, except it is filled with a mixture of water, crushed ice, and alcohol. For very low temperatures, you can use "redneck liquid nitrogen", which is dry ice and alcohol.

>A single burner electric hotplate can be purchased from most houseware supply stores like Wal Mart. Get a good quality one - you don't want sparks from cheap insulation.

Go to a site like:


And order the following.

>Distillation apparatus - 500ml
>5 piece beaker set (get TWO)
>5 piece Erlenmeyer flask set
>Separatory funnels (get TWO)
>Glass funnels (get FIVE)
>Half a dozen medium test tubes
>Half a dozen pipettes
>Half a dozen glass stirring rods
>5 piece Barnes bottle set with tray
>Mortar and pestle
>A trio of wash bottles (one for water, one for alcohol, one for neutralizing solution)

You will also need:

>Litmus paper - LOTS OF IT. You will be testing for acidity very frequently. Only skimp on this if you want to fucking die.
>Filter paper - LOTS OF IT. You do NOT reuse filter paper. A clean sheet every time is the name of the game.
>Two pairs of tongs for holding beakers.
>Three or four good quality small thermometers with clips to hold them in a beaker.
>A bottle washer.
>Lab cleaning solvent for cleaning glassware. You'll use a lot of this - buy a gallon or two.
>Lots of methanol (HEET brand, from the auto store - buy several) and ethanol (Everclear - buy the gallon jug from a liquor store) for washing chemicals and dissolving material.

That covers equipment. Now I'm going to source you the two most basic chemicals that you will need to begin: Concentrated sulfuric acid and potassium nitrate

>Concentrated sulfuric acid

You can actually buy this over the counter from most big hardware stores. It is used as drain unclogger, and can be found at 90% purity under the brand names Rooto and Liquid Lightning at most Lowes and Home Depot stores. They will say somewhere on the bottle "sulfuric acid". Don't get these mixed up with the alkali versions of the same product, which use concentrated lye. The mixup is one you'll only live to make once. Should run you about seven bucks for a quart of it. Buy as much as you can - you'll use this shit for EVERTHING, and rarely in small amounts. It cannot be recycled.

>Potassium nitrate

You can buy this from any Ace Hardware store. They sell it in .5lb, 1lb, and 1.5lb jugs under the brand "Hi-Yield Stump Remover." According to the materials safety data sheet for Hi Yield, the contents are 98% pure potassium nitrate.

The third chemical you want to stockpile in addition to these two is a bit more esoteric, but oh so useful: Hexamine. You're probly not going to find hexamine for sale OTC, since it is only used for one thing commercially - Esbit fuel tablets for those little pocket camp stoves are 80% pure hexamine. These are easily restricted - BUY AS MANY AS YOU CAN.


Order this shit by the case. Having 100 lbs in your shed still isn't enough. Hexamine is like crack for home chemists - you can use it for many different things, ESPECIALLY explosives, and it is almost totally unavailable commercially. These little fuel blocks are your only window and could be shut off at any time.

You have your grocery list, OPERATORs. So hop to shopping!
>> No. 2741 ID: 91d331

Here ya go.
>> No. 2743 ID: 184ea6
Thanks! That was a neat read! You may want to re-upload w/o your trip entered, not sure how much you guys care about it though.

I don't mean to step on any toes or get ahead of the thread, but will there any discussion on the physics (terms such as brisance and det. velocity, and their relevance/importance?). Lots of respect for your individual research AM; would you have any advice for someone who'd enjoy working in this area (in school for Mech. Eng. at the moment). Or just general advice for independent studying? I love learning new stuff (specifically physics/chemistry/material science and their application). Sorry for distractions/tangents, thanks for this thread!
>> No. 2745 ID: 8c1454

We're going to cover everything at some point - right down to design of detonators, boosters, cavity resonance, and wave shapers. I'm starting with the chemistry because to make explosives you need chemistry, and to fiddle with the physics you need the explosives.

>would you have any advice for someone who'd enjoy working in this area (in school for Mech. Eng. at the moment

Take a minor in organic chemistry (seriously), then look at a specialized associates degree in explosives use. Many universities offer courses in explosives engineering, especially in the fields of mining and demolition. As far as independent study, STAY AWAY from the so called "bomb making" books you'll find online - they vary from "plausible but lacking critical info" to "lol we'll totally get dudes killed guize!". I'll be dumping gratuitous amounts of professional references as the thread goes on, and many of them will point you to other studies and sources you can look at. Once you have a solid grasp of the basics, then apply for the ATF license and just experiment!

They key in learning the material is this:

>NEVER trust a singular source. Find a dozen sources, cross-reference them for details, then look at the situation from your Chemistry education and determine what is REALLY going on and build your own plan of attack.

Don't trust recipes. Not even the ones I will be posting. Make sure you know what is happening in the experiment from the standpoint of a chemist, don't rely on following some guide.
>> No. 2746 ID: dcc0c8

Both of my local surplus stores stock these in od wrappers. 3"x2"x1/2" bars .50/pair wrapped together. They have an nsn on the wrapper. I bought a metric shitton of them a few months ago so check around operators.
>> No. 2749 ID: de37e8
File 136141975673.jpg - (324.54KB , 1247x816 , 1361413775288.jpg )
Much appreciated
>> No. 2750 ID: 8c1454
  Baby Steps - The production of Nitric Acid

Time for our first experiment discussion, OPERATORs.

This ine is a great place to start because, in most areas, you will not need any sort of license to do it. We're going to be making the most important precursor to a modern explosive: Ruby red, delicious, fuming nitric acid!

Making nitric acid is the reason you had the 500ml distillation apparatus on your shopping list. The easiest way to make it is to combine concentrated sulfuric acid with a metal nitrate, like that potassium nitrate you've been stockpiling. The more pure the chemicals you use, the better the nitric acid you get.

The video gives an overview of three different processes to familiarize you with the chemistry involved, but the short recipe is this:

>Set up your distillation apparatus above your hot water bath, with a glass beaker under the condenser to collect your nitric acid.

>Add 1 part by volume of potassium nitrate (98%) to your distillation flask. SLOWLY, CAREFULLY pour in 2 parts by volume of your concentrated sulfuric acid. and shake the flask very gently to mix. Connect the flask to the distillation setup and make sure the connections are good.

>Turn on the hotplate, and VERY SLOWLY (should take about 30 minutes) increase the temperature until you start to see reddish yellow fumes coming out of the flask and into the condenser. Keep the temperature constant at this point, and you will start to see pure nitric acid collecting in the condenser and dripping into your beaker.

>Allow the reaction to continue until the fumes turn white. White fumes mean that only sulfuric acid is boiling, and you've used up all the nitrates.

>Allow the unit to cool a bit, then remove the flask from the distillation apparatus, add more potassium nitrate and sulfuric acid to top it off, reconnect and repeat the process.

>Try to make at least 1 liter at a sitting. This will take a few hours, but makes a great experiment to repeat on weekends. Stockpile the nitric acid you produce this way in good quality glass jugs WITH GLASS STOPPERS. Nitric acid WILL eat through nearly ANY form of plastic or rubber, and that means so do the fumes!

You can use the other methods described in the video for making dilute nitric acid for simple, cheap experimentation - but the stuff you distill from sulfuric acid this way is "weapons grade." It is precious as gold, so never waste it and store as much as you can make in a cool, dry place in the DARK. Sunlight can break it down.
>> No. 2751 ID: 8c1454

Also, to obtain the hydrochloric acid the video author uses in his first two examples, you can buy it from any hardware store. It is called Muriatic Acid and is used for cleaning concrete. The stuff at Wal Mart near the paint department comes in gallon jugs and is about 37% concentration, but you can sometimes find it up to 70% at places like Home Depot.

Other resources for making nitric via chemicals:

See embed.
Improvised Munitions Handbook Vol. 3 - Section 4.1
>> No. 2752 ID: 8c1454
  Another excellent, professional video on distillation.
>> No. 2753 ID: f53ca2
You can also get high concentration muriatic acid from your local pool supply store by the case for cheap. 37% is kinda the limit in terms of concentration. In order to concentrate it any higher (40%) requires containing it under pressure and below 30C. So you wont find muriatic acid in a 70% concentration outside of a lab setting. That acid is most likely phosphoric acid which is used commercially as a rust converter/stripper.

I know you've mentioned finding many sources before using any information, and I'm not an expert or an amateur at making nitric acid but I don't want to see anyone using the wrong acid and hurting themselves.
>> No. 2757 ID: 8c1454

The 70% stuff can be found as "concentrated muriatic acid". If the instructions tell you to dilute it before using it for cleaning its a good bet thats what it is.

Still damned good advice though. ALWAYS check the MSDS (look up the brand and product from your smartphone) and make sure before you mess with it.
>> No. 2804 ID: afafb0

Any idea what "safer muriatic acid" is? Just a lower concentration?
>> No. 2805 ID: e76043
File 136178020821.gif - (2.44MB , 480x360 , 1352615584789.gif )
What's the best place to get ammonium nitrate from? I've got nitromethane, dentared alcohol and all the pots and pans I need to cook RDX at home, but finding ammonium nitrate is a real pain in the cunt. None of the garden centers/home improvement places around here have it.
>> No. 2806 ID: a4d0e8

RDX requires acetic anhydride. Anticipate a friendly knock on the door from the DEA. Or try PETN instead, easier stuff to get(the PE is a little pricey if it not by mtons).
>> No. 2807 ID: b0c576

I used to work at a Lowe's. The availability fluctuates, just like ammo, and when they have it, they don't advertise it. Most employees don't even know that the store sells it. (The people in charge know what it can be used for, and they don't want everyone buying it, because they don't want to get shit on by the media and regulated by the govt. because some idiot accidentally his entire neighborhood...) Go to a bunch of stores, ask the managers if they have any in stock. You don't need to tell them what you need it for. If they ask, just tell them you're starting a garden. You might be surprised.
>> No. 2808 ID: e76043
File 136178417620.gif - (535.98KB , 391x295 , 1352616249706.gif )
I've made PETN before but I don't like doing it since it takes fucking forever to get a usable amount, and the chance of a thermal runaway is too high for my tastes.

I called a few around here and told them I needed it for renitrating some land but none of them had it. I should probably try a more rural area though, my understanding is the biggest users are farms.
>> No. 2811 ID: bffb78
Safer is watered down to about 25% at that level it's considered an irritant rather than a corrosive. Muriatic acid evaporates quickly when agitated or heated (38% has a boiling point of 48C).

An old opened bottle sitting in the garage will drop concentration quickly. I've used some old acid to balance PH and an entire gallon wouldn't drop the PH more than .1 (a quarter gallon of fresh 38% dropped it .3). So if you buy any muriatic acid don't open it until you're ready to use it.
>> No. 2817 ID: 5b9651

RDX only requires AAH if you're making it from raw paraformaldehyde and not starting from Hexamine (and what did we say about Hexamine? Go order another 50 lbs of it for forgetting. Right now.)

R-Salts is a better choice than RDX anyway for a host of reasons, but we'll be covering that later.

If you really want AN, quit fucking around playing secret squirrel like some teenage niggerbomber and just order a pound or three of the shit like a normal human being: You're a scientist, not a fucking terrorist. So act like it. Have some self respect.

>> No. 2820 ID: 63d5a1
File 136184269629.gif - (2.67MB , 400x225 , implying.gif )
>You're a scientist, not a fucking terrorist.
>> No. 2877 ID: 8c1454
File 136210969837.jpg - (79.00KB , 600x800 , nitroglycerin.jpg )
Alright OPERATORs. Now that you've stockpiled some basic materials and cooked up a litre or two of delicious concentrated nitric acid in your distillation apparatus, we're going to look at performing a basic nitration reaction.

Since we're all about history, we're going to start with one of the oldest and most useful of them all - nitroglycerine.

You can obtain glycerine at many pharmacies, like your local Rite-Aid or Walgreens. Make sure it is PURE glycerine, with no perfumes or other chemicals listed on the ingredients label. It will some in a small bottle of about 8oz, and cost around seven bucks.

For this reaction you will need:

>Sulfuric acid
>Nitric acid
>4% baking soda/water solution for neutralizing.
>A thick saltwater solution for the washing step.
>TWO Ice baths, the reaction will not likely finish before the first melts.
>Separatory funnel
>Litmus paper

>Chemical formula C3H5N3O9
>Velocity of Detonation - 7700 meters/second
>Relative explosive power - High
>Sensitivity - VERY HIGH, handle with great care. Explodes from sudden shock or friction, especially sensitive when heated or partially frozen. Keep cool, dry, and away from heat, flame, and strong sunlight.

>Nitroglycerin was first prepared by a scientist named A. Sobrero around 1847 where it was used as a medicine. It was then mass produced by the great scientist Alfred Nobel in 1864 when he developed improvements on its synthesis and a method of detonating it. The devastation nitroglycerin caused on both the battlefield and the factory earned Nobel the title "Merchant of Death." Nobel was haunted by the lives nitroglycerin claimed so he created the Nobel Peace Prize to honor champions of peace, and later, supreme accomplishments in science. His exposure to nitroglycerin gave him constant agonizing headaches, and ironically he took nitro pills for a heart condition later in life. Nitroglycerin remains in use as a medicine, but not for explosives. Nitroglycerin is a very unstable high explosive compound.

The reaction posted below is courtesy of Megalomania of Roguesci fame - undoubtedly one of the most prolific and skilled amateur chemists of the current generation.

>Prepare a mixture of 200 mL of 98-100% nitric acid and 300 mL of 98-100% sulfuric acid by slowly adding one to the other in a 1000-mL beaker.

>Place the beaker into a salt-ice bath during the mixing so it may cool, allow the temperature to drop below 10 °C after mixing. You can keep the cold acid in the salt-ice bath. Prepare a fresh salt-ice bath on standby.

>While stirring gently with a glass stirring rod held in a gloved hand, VERY slowly add drop by drop 112 mL of glycerol that has been previously cooled to 15 °C.

>CAREFULLY monitor the temperature of the reaction at all times, the temperature must stay below 20 °C, and preferably below 15 °C for extra safety. If at any time the temperature goes near this, stop adding glycerin until it cools. You can use the rate of addition to control the temperature. If the temperature ever rises above 20 °C the reaction is ruined as no more nitro will be made and you are in great danger of the existing nitro detonating.

>If the temperature goes above 30 °C, there is a sudden rise in temperature, or a red gas is noticed, DUMP IT INTO COLD WATER IMMEDIATELY!. Keep a dump bucket of ice water on hand for this task.

>After adding all of the glycerin, allow the temperature to drop to 15 °C and sit for 15 minutes. Very carefully pour the reaction mix into a large beaker containing an equal volume of room temperature water. Add this mix to a separatory funnel and allow the nitroglycerin to settle out, it will form a layer on the bottom of the funnel. Carefully drain this layer out and discard the waste acids left over.

>Place the crude nitro back into a clean separatory funnel and add plenty of 38-45 °C water, mix gently with a glass stirring rod, then separate again - this is how nitro is washed. Wash the nitro again in this manner, then wash it an additional time with a warm 4% sodium carbonate (baking soda) solution. Wash with warm water three more times. Give it a final wash of concentrated sodium chloride (table salt) solution, and let it sit one day before separating the layers using your separation funnel. Separate and check the nitro for acidity with litmus paper. If it is still acidic keep washing. It must be neutral or it will explode.

>One unit of glycerine will yield about 2.5 units of nitro. Beware, unprotected exposure to nitroglycerine will cause severe headaches. Keep it cool, the warmer it is the more sensitive it is to detonation. Frozen nitro can not be detonated therefore it is stable BUT partially frozen nitro is extra sensitive! Although nitroglycerin is very dangerous when confined, it is merely flammable when spread out in the open air.
>> No. 2883 ID: 5b9651
File 136215276113.jpg - (234.06KB , 624x468 , 13607130478.jpg )
So why did we choose to start with Nirtoglycerine, since that all sounds rather complicated? A few reasons.

>The purpose of this thread is to build knowledge and skill. The chemist must become familiar with every step of the production process for these chemicals, and nitro uses a good variety of the most common processes. If you can make nitro, you can make almost anything else that will come down and line, and the various procedures will seem very familiar to you.

>The process is broken down into several distinct steps, each with clear beginning and ending points, allowing the OPERATOR to progress through the reaction while keeping an eye on the details more easily.

>It only requires three basic chemicals, one of which you easily made and two of which are easily acquired over the counter.

>It requires very stringent temperature control, but if the reaction runs away, nitro is a bit more forgiving on being poured into your dump bucket (BEWARE THE FUMES THOUGH - VERY TOXIC!). This allows you to work on your most important skill - keeping that reaction temperature where it needs to be. If you can manage nitro, you can manage anything else that you're likely to ever make.

>The resultant product, held in sub-millilitre amounts, can teach you the basics of handling a finished explosive. Which will be covered in the next step.

>The finished nitroglycerine is easily disposed of. You can carefully wash it down a drain, burn it in the open, or blow it up to get rid of it. It is relatively low toxicity as long as you don't breathe a lot of its fumes or let it sit on your skin.
>> No. 2901 ID: 8c1454
File 136220275199.jpg - (44.01KB , 570x488 , 1314843578659.jpg )
Since we've discussed how to make our first little batch of an energetic material, it is time we cover the basics of safety in how you store and handle it. Here are some simple rules to follow, as the professional you are:

>Before handling an explosive of any kind, give yourself a spritz of anti-static spray and WASH YOUR HANDS to avoid contamination.

>NEVER handle an explosive with bare hands. Many of the toxic elements in them can be absorbed through the skin.

>Avoid handling or opening raw explosive material in a confined area, many of them give off small amounts of potentially harmful fumes. Short exposures (a minute or two) are usually okay, but don't be cavalier about it. Keep your face away when opening a container of explosive.

>Whenever possible, AVOID storing an explosive in a brittle container. The explosion risk that we generally run is bad enough, do NOT add the risk of shrapnel to the mix! HDPE plastic containers or wax paper wrapping are generally your best option, but CLEAN BOTTLES THOROUGHLY before use, preferably several times, to remove all possible trace contaminants! NEVER use screw-on caps! NEVER get explosive on the rim of the bottle! If you do, clean the neck inside and out VERY CAREFULLY before capping or corking.

>Your best friend when carrying a sensitive explosive a short distance, is DISTANCE. Drill a hole in the end of a yardstick and hang a small cloth "hobo bag" from the end of it. Place the explosive in the bag and carry it by the other end of the yardstick. When you get where you're going, set the stick down and carefully remove the explosive from the bag. Handle test tubes and small beakers of explosive using tongs, not bare hands. Carry detonators by the far ends of the fuse or electric leads and held at arms length, avoid touching the detonator body itself if at all possible. Always wear your gloves, soft armor, and eye protection. ALWAYS.

>For more secure transport as in a vehicle, get a large, soft plastic toolbox and fill it half full with very slightly moistened sawdust. Place the small container of explosives in the center of the box, fill the remainder of the box with more sawdust so that it completely surrounds the explosive. Close the lid of the box and give it a spritz of anti-static spray. Keep the box as far from the occupants of the vehicle as possible, such as in the trunk or inside a truck toolbox. Secure it TIGHTLY so it doesn't shift, move, or rattle. DRIVE SAFELY!

>Store explosives in your approved magazine. This can be made by placing them inside a small safe that is surrounded by sand-filled cinderblocks on all four sides to a height of twice the safe's, with an open top. If an explosion occurs, the blast will be directed straight up, safely. Keep the magazine at least 100 feet from the nearest occupied building. FOLLOW ALL LAWS AND REGULATIONS.

>Never transport more than three detonators to a container. Never handle more than one detonator at a time. NEVER expose detonators to heat, bright sunlight, crushing weight, or vibration. ALWAYS use anti-static spray before handling detonators. ALWAYS twist the leads of an electric detonator together after you make it, to prevent ambient electromagnetic radiation from generating a current in the wires. Only untwist them immediately before use. USE LONG FUSES for fused detonators!

This has been a public safety announcement.
>> No. 2929 ID: 5b9651
File 136234136491.jpg - (36.41KB , 620x412 , Explosives.jpg )
ETN is a very useful explosive with a simple synthesis. For those who have read up a bit on military munitions, you have probably heard of an explosive called PETN - PENTAerythritol tentranitrate. PETN is a very powerful, pretty stable explosive that is the main ingredient in SEMTEX and most older Russian ordnance. It is also heavily used for shaped charges in the form of Pentolite, a 50/50 mix of PETN and TNT. PETN is made by the niration of a chemical called Pentaerythritol.

ETN is made by the nitration of Erythritol, a "sugar-alcohol" that comes in the form of granulated crystals used as a low-cal sweetener. It has a structure very similar to PETN, with similar melting points and detonation sensitivity, and similar power. In recent years with the FDA approval of the sale of Erythritol on the open market as a food product, it has become a popular and easy to make "lab explosive." Its sensitivity falls into a very useful range - you can phlegmatize it (add a binder to make it less sensitive) by gently mixing it with ~10% parts by weight of paraffin wax or silicone oil and use it as a secondary or bulk explosive by itself, , or you can use it raw and pressed into a tube with aluminum foil as a primary explosive. It can be mixed with TNT to form an analogue of Pentolite. Its power can vary widely depending on how you confine it and how it is pressed. It is if very low toxicity, is brisant, has a high detonation velocity (~7800m/s at 1.57g/cc) and has a good shelf life if neutralized and stabilized carefully.

ETN is a very useful explosive with two drawbacks. The raw material Erythritol is not widely available commercially, and is moderately expensive. Some health food stores will stock or order it, but at around $10 a pound it isn't especially cheap. A better bet would be to contact a wholesaler and try to order it in 20lb bulk bags for reprocessing, or look for a discount vendor online. You can find the latter here:


The other drawback is that yields of the reaction are "self-limiting". Meaning that you cannot scale the batch to make more of it. To produce a lot of it, you either need a "continuous flow" nitration process which has yet to be devised, or you need to produce several small batches at once and combine the yields. It is easy to make, but not easy to scale up to large quantities.

ETN is made by an "in-situ" nitration reaction. If you were paying attention to the distilling of nitric acid in the earlier posts, you have probably realized that, in that process, it is the reaction of sulfuric acid with the nitrate salt that produces the nitric acid. All you are doing is distilling it to separate that nitric acid out. Ergo, any time you combine sulfuric acid and a nitrate, nitric acid is produced in the mix. For some chemicals that don't require the nitric acid to be highly concentrated, you can simply mix the sulfuric acid, nitrate salt, and desired chemical together in the same beaker and hold it at the proper temperature with cooling and stirring to complete the reaction. Erythritol is fortunately one of those chemicals.

ETN can be produced in small batches by the following process, established from researching several sources of my own:

>Sulfuric Acid
>Potassium nitrate (98%)
>Erythritol (food grade)
>Urea solution (.5%)
>Neutralizing solution (5%)
>alcohol (pure)
>Ice bath
>Mortar and Pestle
>Glass stirring rod
>A very strong stainless steel spoon for stirring. Glass will not work at the last part of the reaction. The solution turns VERY THICK, like wet cement, during the reaction. It will snap a glass rod like nothing if you try to stir it.
>OPTIONAL - A small amount of dilute nitric acid, not the good stuff.


>Place 100ml of sulfuric into a medium glass beaker and place it in the freezer. Chill it to -10C.

>Meanwhile place 60 grams of potassium nitrate in a mortar and pestle and grind it VERY fine. It should be close to the consistency of face powder. Set it aside. and clean and mortar and pestle thoroughly.

>Now place 20 grams of Erythritol in the clean mortar and pestle and grind it very fine. Set it aside.

>Prepare your ice bath, and set aside a large beaker or other container with about ~400ml of water for later.

>Remove the chilled sulfuric from the freezer and place the beaker in the ice bath. VERY SLOWLY start adding the finely ground potassium nitrate, stirring well and constantly. MONITOR THE TEMPERATURE CLOSELY. Do not let it exceed 15C. Minding your temperature, continue the addition and stir vigorously until all of the nitrate is dissolved and you can no longer see any nitrate salt as you stir. KEEP THE TEMP BELOW 15C AT ALL TIMES.

>Top off the ice bath with more crushed ice and salt if necessary, and then VERY CAREFULLY start adding the erythritol to the cold acid mix. Add about a half-gram at a time and stir very well. [b]DO NOT ALLOW THE TEMPERATURE AT ANY POINT TO EXCEED 15 DEGREES CELSIUS!]/b] A temperature in the 5C range is ideal.

>Once all the erythritol is added, keep the mix below 15C and continue stirring as the nitration reaction occurs. Stir it for about one minute at a time, every 5 minutes, for one hour. Again, never let the temperature rise above 15C. Top off the ice bath as necessary to ensure control of the temperature. The mix will become EXTREMELY thick and creamy, like frozen ice cream or wet concrete. Switch to your stainless steel stirring tool when it gets thick. If you have some dilute nitric acid, you can add a few ml to the reaction, drop by drop, to thin it out and make stirring a bit easier.

>After the mix has reacted for the specified hour, remove it from the ice bath and SLOWLY, CAREFULLY pour it into the large beaker holding ~400ml of water that you prepared at the start. A large white cloud will appear in the water. This cloud is made of crystals of crude ETN explosive.

>Let the contents of the beaker settle for 3 or 4 minutes, then slowly pour it through a glass funnel lined with filter paper to collect the ETN crystals. Transfer the crystals to fresh filter paper and wash them twice with cold water from your wash bottle first, then wash them with the neutralizing solution.

>Recrystallize the ETN by adding the crystals to a beaker of warm alcohol and stirring until they all dissolve. Prepare a second beaker of cold water with about 0.5% of urea and 3% baking soda dissolved in it. The urea is a stabilizer that will keep the ETN from breaking down. Quickly pour the dissolved ETN into the beaker of cold urea/neutralizing solution ("crash" it), stir briskly for a few minutes, and filter out the crystals as before. Wash them with water again, then test for acidity with litmus paper. If it is acidic, keep washing.

>When the crystals are cleaned and neutral, spread them out thinly on a paper towel to dry. The result is finished, pure erythritol tetranitrate explosive.
>> No. 2946 ID: e76043
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I just uploaded some ebooks/PDFs to http://www.operatorchan.org/z/res/1167.html

Sorry it took so long, I was banned for a few days for shitposting on /n/

If you have any more requests, I've got several GB of stuff available
>> No. 2954 ID: 5b9651

Be very fucking careful with those. They fall into the "not-quite-but-almost" Anarchist Cookbook category. Some of the stuff in Benson's books will work, but they leave out enough details to get you FUCKING KILLED if you just "doop dee doo!" along with the instructions. Not "maybe" get you killed. WILL. Use them as a conceptual reference, but don't attempt anything in them until you've studied the problem from a better source.
>> No. 2955 ID: e76043
Yeah I have a docs from the Jolly Roger from the Anarchist group that have instructions for making nitrosugars that say the safe temperature limit is 200 C.

I'm pretty sure it's a trick to get idiots killed :|
>> No. 3001 ID: 8c1454
File 136297781652.jpg - (15.03KB , 320x240 , picric4.jpg )
>Picric Acid, AKA Trinotrophenol

Picric acid is a very old explosive. It was originally the chief explosive used in artillery shells circa World War 1. Notoriously hard to "high order" detonate, many shells made of such primitive trinitrophenol (TNP) were weak and actually caused comparatively little damage.

>A "high order" detonation means that the explosion reaction occurs in the material at or near the maximum possible speed, exceeding the speed of sound. This is dependent on the amount of energy used to start the reaction (the power of the detonator and how closely it is packed into the explosive) and the density of the explosive material). If an explosive goes "low order", meaning it explodes but at significantly less than its maximum speed, a significant amount of power is wasted and the explosive is greatly weakened in effect. TNP requires a strong detonator or a powerful booster for a high order detonation.

TNP is interesting for five reasons.

>It is historically significant.
>It is easy to make, even in quantity.
>It is moderately insensitive to rough handing, shock, friction, and heat.
>It can be used as a primary explosive by itself, if the detonator is strong.
>It is the main ingredient in the reactions of several other VERY useful explosives, notably lead picrate and ammonium picrate.

TNP also has one VERY severe drawback.

TNP is VERY reactive (it's not called "picric ACID" for no reason!) and reacts with metals like nobodys business, forming a material called a "picrate salt." These salts are INCREDIBLY sensitive explosives. Some of them are so sensitive that they will simply spontaneously explode, even with nothing touching them. They are incredibly unpredictable, and have the added benefit of serving as a detonator for the remaining bulk of any TNP sitting next to them! They are indescribably unsafe. For this reason, TNP can only be stored in high quality glass containers that have been THOROUGHLY scrubbed, cleaned, sanitized, and dried several times. Cheap glass might have traces of minerals in the glass itself, and these minerals WILL REACT with TNP. Ditto for residues! CLEAN, CLEAN, CLEAN!

Oh, and if you get it on you, it will stain your skin brown for a month.

TNP, as the name implies, is made by a reaction that attaches three nitro groups to the chemical phenol. While phenol is a common industrial explosive, it is not widely available over the counter. A more accessible process uses the chemical acetylsalicylic acid - better known as good, old fashioned Aspirin!

While you can use ordinary aspirin tablets, that isn't very money efficient since you'll need quite a lot of them. It is better to contact a farm supply store that handles OTC veterinary products. VERY LARGE aspirin tablets are made quite cheaply for use on cattle and horses - behold:


>Density - 1.7g/cc
>Detonation Velocity - 7,750m/s
>Brisance - High
>Sensitivity - Moderate
>Volatility - High (breaks down over long times in storage, turns to a toxic vapor)
Reactivity - SEVERE with metals - EXTREMELY dangerous.

The first step is to isolate the aspirin from the binders and impurities in the tablets.

>Crush the aspirin tablets to a very fine powder and add them to a large beaker with a quantity of pure alcohol sufficient to completely dissolve them. Gently heat the beaker on your hot plate and heat to 60C, stirring the hot mixture vigorously for fifteen minutes. This dissolves the aspirin in the alcohol. Pour the hot mixture through filter paper into another beaker, and then filter it again into a clean beaker. This separates out all the binders and impurities. Let the liquid stand and evaporate, and the crystals left behind will be pure acetylsalicylic acid.

>In a 750ml beaker, add 40 grams of the pure acetylsalicylic acid to 220ml of 98% sulphuric acid and heat it to 70 degrees Celsius on a simmering water bath. Hold the temperature at 70 degrees and stir until all of the acetylsalicylic acid has dissolved. After adding the acetylsalicylic acid, the solution usually turns black.

>Once all of the acetylsalicylic acid has dissolved, remove the beaker from the heat source. While vigorously stirring, add 77g of potassium nitrate over a period of 1 hour. VERY CAREFULLY add a little more than a gram per minute, while constantly stirring.

>During potassium nitrate addition, nitrogen dioxide gas is given off. THIS GAS IS EXTREMELY TOXIC!! Perform this step outside or somewhere with very good ventilation.

>When potassium nitrate is added, the color of the solution changes from black to red/orange then back to black. When all of the potassium nitrate has been added, the color of the solution is usually very dark red, although not necessarily always, depending on impurities in the sulfuric acid. After the potassium nitrate addition, let the solution cool to room temperature. Prepare an ice bath in the mean time, for the next step.

>Place the beaker of room temperature solution in the ice bath and cool it to 5C. Once the liquid has been cooled to 5 degrees, you should have a suspension thick with picric acid crystals.

>In another beaker, add 500g of ice (made from DISTILLED WATER) to 200ml of DISTILLED, NOT TAP water. While stirring the ice/water, slowly add the picric acid solution from it beaker. After stirring thoroughly, wait 15 minutes for the picric acid to settle at the bottom of the beaker. Pour off the top 500ml or so of the liquid in the beaker, being careful not to disturb the crystals at the bottom. Top off the beaker with another 250ml of DISTILLED, NOT TAP water. Stir gently, and let the crystals re-settle.

>Filter this liquid through filter paper, being careful to collect all the TNP crystals. Discard the toxic liquid. The yellow solid crystals left in the filter is crude picric acid.

>Bring 200ml of DISTILLED, NOT TAP water to a boil in a clean 500ml beaker. When the water is boiling, remove it from the heat source and gently add the picric acid, stirring for 5 minutes to dissolve it into solution again.

>Let the beaker cool, and then place it in an ice bath and chill the picric acid solution to 5 degrees again, and then filter off the picric acid crystals with filter paper as was done in the earlier step. This is RECRYSTALLIZATION of the picric acid.

The crystals collected from the filter paper now are pure Trinitrophenol, AKA Picric Acid. Store them in a GOOD QUALITY GLASS CONTAINER, like a flat-bottomed lab flask, with a cork very loosely set into the neck. Add just enough distilled water (NEVER TAP WATER, as it can have metal impurities from pipes!) to cover the crystals in the jar - storage under a tiny bit of water renders TNP very safe. Keep in a cool, dry place.
>> No. 3149 ID: 2ddbb6
File 136307309784.gif - (37.63KB , 254x394 , Schrute-Farms.gif )
sugar beets
ammonium nitrate + diesel fuel
>> No. 3151 ID: 568553
If its so acidic, how does one safely use it in shells?
>> No. 3152 ID: 8c1454

In the case of German artillery shells, the interior of the shell would be painted with several coats of a rubber-based paint IIRC, to prevent it from coming into contact with any metal. The detonator had to be coated that way as well, and the layer of rubber material between the detonator and the TNP reduced the power of the detonator, explaining why so many German shells only went low-order.

In more modern use, it has been found that TNP does not react with aluminum, if the aluminum is pure and not alloyed with anything. In the amateur field TNP is usually detonated with plastic-tubed detonators or rarely, glass.

Fun fact from SomeEODguy - The Russians used to use TNP to boobytrap unexploded ordnance to kill Mujahideen during the Russo-Afghan war. They would smear a little PA on the threads of the detonator and screw it back in. A few minutes later, the TNP would react with the steel of the threads and form a layer of RETARDEDLY sensitive Iron Picrate crystals. Any attempt to unscrew the detonator again, like say to salvage the delicious explosives out of the shell, would detonate these crystals and set the whole shell off!

Fucking Russians, man.

From teh Wiki:

>Picric acid was probably first mentioned in the alchemical writings of Johann Rudolf Glauber in 1742. Initially, it was made by nitrating substances such as animal horn, silk, indigo, and natural resin, the synthesis from indigo first being performed by Peter Woulfe in 1779. Its synthesis from phenol, and the correct determination of its formula, were successfully accomplished in 1841. Not until 1830 did chemists think to use picric acid as an explosive. Before then, chemists assumed that only the salts of picric acid were explosive, not the acid itself. In 1873 Hermann Sprengel proved it could be detonated and most military powers used picric acid as their primary high explosive material. Picric acid is also used in the analytical chemistry of metals, ores, and minerals.

>Picric acid was the first high explosive nitrated organic compound widely considered suitable to withstand the shock of firing in conventional artillery. Nitroglycerine and guncotton were available earlier but shock sensitivity sometimes caused detonation in the artillery barrel at the time of firing. In 1885, based on research of Hermann Sprengel, French chemist Eugène Turpin patented the use of pressed and cast picric acid in blasting charges and artillery shells. In 1887 the French government adopted a mixture of picric acid and guncotton under the name melinite. In 1888, Britain started manufacturing a very similar mixture in Lydd, Kent, under the name lyddite. Japan followed with an "improved" formula known as shimose powder. In 1889, a similar material, a mixture of ammonium cresylate with trinitrocresol, or an ammonium salt of trinitrocresol, started to be manufactured under the name ecrasite in Austria-Hungary. By 1894 Russia was manufacturing artillery shells filled with picric acid. Ammonium picrate (known as Dunnite or explosive D) was used by the United States beginning in 1906. However, shells filled with picric acid become highly unstable if the compound reacts with metal shell or fuze casings to form metal picrates which are more sensitive than the parent phenol. The sensitivity of picric acid was demonstrated in the Halifax Explosion. Picric acid was used in the Battle of Omdurman,[1] Second Boer War, the Russo-Japanese War, and World War I. Germany began filling artillery shells with TNT in 1902. Toluene was less readily available than phenol, and TNT is less powerful than picric acid, but improved safety of munitions manufacturing and storage caused replacement of picric acid by TNT for most military purposes between the World Wars.
>> No. 3156 ID: 8c1454
Don't want to sound pushy, but I'm noticing a distinct lack of questions in this thread, and it slightly worries me.
>> No. 3157 ID: 123dc5
I sadly lack the capacity to engage in any practice of the things detailed in this thread, but I am reading it carefully and when I have the space to build my own vented lab I'll probably be pestering you with questions.
Also I have a process chemist I can ask questions of when he isn't too busy working on his PhD.
>> No. 3160 ID: e76043
Which explosive is the best combination of easy to find ingredients and power for making at home?
>> No. 3164 ID: 0a488a
cuz most of us lack the basic skill set to follow along, or the space to do so.
Not to mention the insane risks an amateur would be taking even trying to make some of the acid without guidance. Kids to feed, brah, so no baking cakes for me.

Please continue though. This be educational.
>> No. 3165 ID: e76043
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I'll make a longer list on where to get chemicals in the morning, but ammonium nitrate can be bought at some home improvement stores and most farm supply stores. You need 34-0-0. Unprilled is better but that's harder to find since that basically says "I'm baking bombs at home".

Hexamine is used for camp fuel and can sometimes be found at walmart or an outdoors store. It's fairly easy to get online.

Nitromethane is what top fuel dragsters use for fuel. If there's a drag strip in your area you could probably find it there. Hobby stores sometimes have it for RC fuel but it's expensive as fuck in those quantites.
>> No. 3166 ID: e76043
>Not to mention the insane risks
It's only a risk if you can't follow instructions, which isn't difficult.
>> No. 3168 ID: 8c1454

1: You're not going to find 34-0-0 fertilizer for sale anywhere anymore. It's commercially prohibited since last year. You CAN find something called "calcium ammonium nitrate", which is similar but generally useless as an explosive.

2: The nitromethane used for RC engines is a mix of nitromethane and methanol. Most blends are only about 15-30% nitromethane and are useless for energetic materials. You need PURE nitromethane.

In both of these cases, just go online and order the shit from a chemical supplier like a normal person. Nitromethane is like $100 for 5 gallons, and you can get technical grade ammonium nitrate in 20lb bags for about $4.50 a pound. Just don't order more than 50lbs a year, there's a regulation there.


Its only risky if you aren't careful and if you don't approach it like a professional.
>> No. 3169 ID: e76043
Lowe's in my area still has 50lb bags of 34-0-0 for sale for $25, as do most of the farm supply store.
>> No. 3172 ID: e76043
Also I forgot, if you're looking to buy a HUGE quantity of something, Alibaba has everything for sale. The minimum order from most of the suppliers on there is like 200kgs and up but the price per kg can't be beat.
>> No. 3173 ID: e76043
Triple post FTL, it's all over ebay too

>> No. 3175 ID: 6fced1
I'm renting a room at a friend's house, man, I simply don't have the ability to set up the facilities I'd need to try any of this. It's a fascinating read, though, and makes me want to learn more about chemistry. I was a chem major back in 2003, but it just never took off because the career options sucked balls.
>> No. 3176 ID: 894961
File 136319034063.jpg - (130.80KB , 400x480 , male10.jpg )
I used to experiment with explosives. Then neighbors started complaining so I stopped. Which is probably a good thing since I was getting ready to make acetone peroxide.
>> No. 3178 ID: fc6c47
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Basically these >>3157 >>3175

I currently lack the time, money, or location to really get involved in any sort of chemistry or other SCIENCE right now. I'm a bit quiet because I really don't have much to say, and lack enough knowledge to form questions (while I did well, I've only taken 2 semesters of chemistry in college, so I am quite limited). But don't take that as disinterest or "if I post in the thread the gov will get me!".

But I have very much enjoyed what you've posted so far, and have found it quite enlightening. I always suspected things were a bit more involved than internet PDF's would have me believe, and if nothing else you've given me a better safety foundation.
>> No. 3182 ID: 6fced1
But, for the purposes of the thread, I'll ask more questions.

Do you have recipes for or recommendations on two types of explosives?:

One, C4 or similar. A plastic explosive that's stupidly stable and can be formed into various shapes (improv or formed around something) before detonation. Anything from blowing up a tank to breaching a door.

Two, dynamite/TNT or something that can is easier to detonate, and can be formed into blocks or sticks and used as needed. Fuse lit, the sort of dummy-proof shit that people can run fuses to and lit, then de-ass the AO before it blows.

Realistically, from a auxiliary-to-the-resistance perspective, what I want to know is less about how to make lots of kinds of boom plastic, and more about how to make one that's always usable, as in "I just hand a squad ammo, food, and blocks of bang, and I don't need to train them in how to use any of it."

What's the best all-around type to make? Sticks of dynamite with some cannon fuse are practically fool-proof to use, but aren't exactly useable to breach a external door like a few ounces (or whatever) of C4, while the latter requires blasting caps instead of fuses.

Is it even legal to ask about making something that doesn't remotely resemble frag grenades?
>> No. 3184 ID: e76043
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I posted C4 recipes in

This one has C4, TNT, and a bunch of other stuff in it
>> No. 3185 ID: 5adb5b
Dynamite is nitroglycerin >>2877 mixed with http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diatomaceous_earth I would do a bit more research to make sure that it's being properly produced, but that should do it, though it will still be unstable as it freezes.
>> No. 3190 ID: 5b9651
File 136328952313.jpg - (51.89KB , 485x325 , stop.jpg )

DO NOT trust anything in those books!!!!!!!

Yes, I resorted to multiple exclamation marks. I'd cut my own dick off if some OPERATOR got hurt from something in one of my threads.

A few brief points that I can expound on later:

1: C4 is NOT the name of an explosive. It is the name of a composition. A recipe of sorts for mixing an explosive with other stuff for a particular purpose. There are several compositions used by the US Military, including Comp.A, B, C, and D variations. The fourth variation of Composition C is only the most famous because of movies and vidya. The EXPLOSIVE used in comp. C-4 is actually RDX type B.

2: NONE of Ragnar Benson's recipes are for actual C4. They all hinge on somewhat plasticlike variations of Ammonium Nitrate dynamites. They can be useful yes, but they are nothing like the real deal in power or stability.

3: Yes, there are at least a couple interesting explosive compositions that could be mass-produced for general applications. We will be looking at those when we get to the Industrial Production sections. We'll look at phlegmatizers, plasticizers, and tackifiers as well. We're going to be looking at TNT and Picric Acid industrial production especially.
>> No. 3191 ID: e76043
The only reason those recipes aren't technically C4 is because it uses a different plasticizer than the military grade stuff. I've used 3 of the different recipes in those books and it results in real RDX (verified with a chronometer) which is the important part.

If you want to be a pedantic retard, it's virtually impossible to make real C4 since dioctyl sebacate and polyisobutylene are almost impossible to find/make as a civillian.
>> No. 3192 ID: 5b9651

Actually, you're wrong on both counts. But I'll be getting to sources on those later when we cover the military compositions.

RDX can be made in the lab from Hexamine or paraformaldehyde with ascetic anhydride, but the yields are dildos and its expensive. Its one we'll be looking at as an experiment, but not for production.


That was the giveaway. Try less hard, learn more. Or don't be the type of guy who should be reading this thread. Keep the bomb-making manuals out of it.
>> No. 3193 ID: 28e84c
>verified with a chronometer
A... clock?

nigga pls.
>> No. 3196 ID: 8c1454
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Time for our next experiment, and this is a fun one.

>Nitrocellulose, or NC

Nitrocellulose is a very simple explosive that is actually pretty unfriendly to make. The process isn't hard, but getting the material pure enough and neutralized enough to keep it from spontaneously exploding makes it one of the hardest explosives to make. Easy to do, but a bitch to do right. NC is a very old explosive, and the main ingredient in several very useful explosive compositions, including one that is a neat piece of history.

>Nitrocellulose (also: cellulose nitrate, flash paper, flash cotton, flash string) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent. When used as a propellant or low-order explosive, it was originally known as guncotton. Nitrocellulose plasticized by camphor was used by Kodak, and other suppliers, from the late 1880s as a film base in photograph, X-ray films and motion picture films; and was known as nitrate film. After numerous fires caused by unstable nitrate films, safety film started to be used from the 1930s in the case of X-ray stock and from 1948 for motion picture film.

>Henri Braconnot discovered in 1832 that nitric acid, when combined with starch or wood fibers, would produce a lightweight combustible explosive material, which he named xyloïdine. A few years later in 1838 another French chemist Théophile-Jules Pelouze (teacher of Ascanio Sobrero and Alfred Nobel) treated paper and cardboard in the same way. He obtained a similar material he called nitramidine. Both of these substances were highly unstable, and were not practical explosives. However, around 1846 Christian Friedrich Schönbein, a German-Swiss chemist, discovered a more practical solution. As he was working in the kitchen of his home in Basel, he spilled a bottle of concentrated nitric acid on the kitchen table. He reached for the nearest cloth, a cotton apron, and wiped it up. He hung the apron on the stove door to dry, and, as soon as it was dry, there was a flash as the apron exploded. His preparation method was the first to be widely imitated—one part of fine cotton wool to be immersed in fifteen parts of an equal blend of sulfuric and nitric acids. After two minutes, the cotton was removed and washed in cold water to set the esterification level and remove all acid residue. It was then slowly dried at a temperature below 100 °F (about 38 °C). Schönbein collaborated with the Frankfurt professor Rudolf Christian Böttger, who had discovered the process independently in the same year. By coincidence, a third chemist, the Brunswick professor F. J. Otto had also produced guncotton in 1846 and was the first to publish the process, much to the disappointment of Schönbein and Böttger.

This preparation is sourced from "The Chemistry of Powder and Explosives", which you can find in the thread in /z/ with some modifications made by me.

>Formula: C6H7(NO2)3O5
>Detonation velocity: ~7300m/s
>Sensitivity: Mild to shock and vibration. Severe to flame, spark, and heat.
>Volatility: Low, stores easily for long periods if pure.
>Brisance: Low to moderate.
>VERY spark and flame sensitive. The slightest zap will send it up in a roaring whoosh of flame. Explodes with modest power when confined.


>Concentrated nitric acid
>Concentrated sulfuric acid
>Pure white cotton balls, free of perfumes, dies, and chemicals
>Four medium to large beakers
>Lots of distilled water
>An ordinary oven

First start by cleaning and drying the cotton.

>Boil a few cotton balls in a beaker of distilled water for ten minutes, stirring gently, let the mixture cool and carefully remove the cotton balls to a clean ceramic plate. Let them air dry in a clean spot for a day or until totally dry, and then place the plate of cotton in the oven at 100 degrees and dry them for 2 hours. DO NOT SKIP THIS STEP! Impurities in the cotton are the most frequent cause of failed synths and accidents when making NC, and the cotton must be absolutely dry.

>In another beaker, pour 75ml of sulfuric acid. Then, VERY CAREFULLY, add an equal volume (75ml) of nitric acid to it and stir them together well with a glass stirring rod. What you are making is a VERY powerful, concentrated nitrating solution commonly called "mixed acid."

>Measure out five grams of the clean, dry cotton and drop it into the beaker of mixed acid, and immediately stir it into the acid with a glass stirring rod. BEWARE OF TOXIC FUMES! Use good ventilation!

>Allow the cotton to sit in the acid for 30 minutes, stirring it every 3 to 5 minutes for 30 seconds at a time. Temperature control is less critical in this reaction than some others. During breaks in the stirring, prepare a 500ml beaker of cold distilled water, and bring another 500ml beaker of distilled water to a boil and set them nearby.

>After 30 minutes, the cotton ball should be removed from the beaker. As you take it out, press it up against the side of the beaker with your stirring rod and squeeze as much acid as possible out of it. IMMEDIATELY DROP IT INTO THE BEAKER OF COLD WATER.

>Stir the cotton ball in the water vigorously, to try and get as much acid as possible out of it. After a minute or two of stirring, transfer the cotton to a funnel lined with filter paper, and wash it under cold running (distilled) water, prodding at it gently with a glass stirring rod, to remove more acid.

>After washing it this way, place it in a large beaker of gently boiling distilled water and boil the cotton for one hour. Then transfer the cotton to a new, clean beaker of distilled water and boil it again for a half hour. THEN remove it, place it in ANOTHER clean beaker, and boil for a half hour more! DO NOT SKIP THESE STEPS IF YOU LIKE YOUR HANDS AND FACE. You cannot neutralize NC, because the baking soda will form an impurity that can cause detonation. The only way to de-acidify the stuff is by washing the shit out of it - boiling it, in clean water several times.

>After the third boiling, test some of the residue water with litmus paper. ANY TRACE OF ACIDITY MEANS YOU MUST BOIL IT AGAIN.

Once the boilings leave the NC with a completely neutral ph, all that is left is to dry it. Place the cotton balls on a clean plate held at an angle and press out as much water as you can without pressing too hard. Set the plate in a warm, dry spot away from any source of spark or flame and let it air dry for a day. The result is pure nitrocellulose.

Pic related - the exact same process, but done on a haybale-scale!
>> No. 3197 ID: 1a7bca
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>being this retarded
Please continue, it's fun watching you embarrass yourself.

Military switched plasticizers last year, I forgot the name of the new one but it's something ethyl based
>> No. 3198 ID: 8c1454

For the uninitiated, what he is alluding to is the measurement of detonation velocity as proof of the explosives power to confirm what it is. Which works.

I'll let you figure out why it DOESN'T work with a chronograph. Hint: WAY TOO FAST TO EVEN START TO POSSIBLY MEASURE. The best amateur way to measure VoD still requires a length of purchased Detcord and a lead reference plate. I'll have to look the exact procedure up again, but I can post it later if anybody wants it.
>> No. 3201 ID: fc6c47
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this is science thread, no more insults or bad feelings please. :(
>> No. 3202 ID: 038051
Please do. And in regards to the lack of questions...most of us just aren't in a position/have time/have equipment to do this testing ATM. I, for one, am still quite interested in reading though.

Oh, maybe a "chem set" post is in order, with the "Best bang for your buck" starter equipment discussion, or discussion about what you really need to buy rather than fudge, labware-wise.
>> No. 3203 ID: 5b9651
File 136336098764.jpg - (60.34KB , 500x250 , DYNAMITE_-_NOBEL_GELIGNITE_4_OZ_STICK_JPG.jpg )
Now, what you may not have realized is that with the addition of nitrocellulose to our study, we have opened the door to another fun material.

Would you like to know what the most powerful explosive in the world for a very long time was? How about the first "plastic" explosive?

The answer is Gelignite - AKA "blasting gelatine."

From the Chemistry of Powder and Explosives pp.343-344

>A freshly prepared blasting gelatine consisting of 93 parts nitroglycerine and 7 parts of collodion cotton (nitrocellulose) is exploded by a No. 1 blasting cap (the weakest) and propagates detonation even in 25mm cartridges across a gap of about 10mm.

Nitroglycerine, you see, is actually plasticized by the addition of a small amount of nitrocellulose! Blasting gel was one of the first of what we today recognize as "plastic explosives" - it was an explosive compound that was soft and moldable. It could be more or less "stiff" depending on the amount of NC that was added to the NG. Seven parts was about the minimum, and with more than about 9 parts it became very stiff and hard to detonate.

also of note is that as you approach a 50/50 mix of NG and NC, some interesting things happen. For one the material becomes EXTREMELY hard to detonate, but will burn with a powerful flash and very little smoke residue. The NG+NC combination is actually the basis (there are other additives and stabilizers too) for what we today call DBSP - "double-base smokeless powder." In other words, the common "gunpowder" used for reloading ammunition.
>> No. 3211 ID: 5b9651
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Now I want you to go back up to the Nitroglycerine synth we talked about earlier. Recall the section here:

>After adding all of the glycerin, allow the temperature to drop to 15 °C and sit for 15 minutes. Very carefully pour the reaction mix into a large beaker containing an equal volume of room temperature water. Add this mix to a separatory funnel and allow the nitroglycerin to settle out, it will form a layer on the bottom of the funnel. Carefully drain this layer out and discard the waste acids left over.

That's a lot of hard-won acid mix you're throwing away, isn't it? What if I told you that you could save that nasty used acid and put it to good use in making yet ANOTHER explosive. Well read on here:


The short version is that you can use the leftover acid from making NG or NC to produce a mild but interesting explosive liquid called mononitrotoluene (MNT).

>Toluene is available in large gallon cans from most hardware stores, sold as paint thinner. Make sure it is pure (check MSDS) before using it.

To use the procedure, save the waste acid from the NG or NC reaction after the separation of the corresponding explosive. For NG this would be the point after the quoted text, and for NC would be the point immediately after removing the cotton ball from the acid.

>Place the spent acid beaker into the refridgerator and cool it to about 40C.

>Calculate how much usable nitric acid is available in the spent mix. This requires a bit of chemistry math. An example is reprinted below for your convenience, if you've taken chem it should look quite familiar.

"Mass Potassium Nitrate / Molecular Weight Potassium Nitrate = Moles HNO3 Available

Vol NG produced * Density NG = Mass NG Produced

Moles NG Produced = Mass NG Produced / MW NG

From Stoichiometry

3 moles HNO3 ----> 1 mol NG

Moles of HNO3 used = 3 * Moles of NG Produced

Moles HNO3 left = Moles HNO3 available - Moles HNO3 Used

From Stoichiometry
(going with an assumed 90% conversion based on HNO3)

1 mol HNO3 ----> 1 mol MNT

with 90% conversion
1 mol HNO3 -----> 0.9 mol MNT

moles HNO3 * 0.9 = Moles of Toluene needed

mass of Toluene = moles Toluene * MW Toluene

Volume Toluene = Mass Toluene / Density of Toluene

There are losses in both the esterification of NG and the nitration of toluene, so the amount of toluene needed is possibly somewhat less."

Using those formulas you can calculate how much good nitric acid you have left in the spent acid mix, and thus how much toluene you can add to it.

>Place the measured amount of toluene in a beaker and cool it in the refrigerator to 30C.

>Place the beaker of toluene in an ice bath. Maintain the temperature between 30 and 40C!

>Carefully, drop by drop, add the spent acid mix to the toluene while stirring vigorously. Keep the temperature between 30 and 40C AT ALL TIMES! Adding all the acid mix should take approximately an hour to an hour and a half.

>Once all of the acid has been added and the reaction has settled down a bit, remove the beaker from the ice bath and continue stirring vigorously for a further 30 minutes.

>Once the stirring is complete, CAREFULLY transfer the contents of the beaker to a clean separatory funnel, and let it stand at room temperature overnight.

>The liquid will separate into two layers. The bottom layer is the waste acid, now fully spent and useless. The top layer is MNT, and should be an oily liquid with a strong smell of almonds. Use the separatory funnel to drain off the spent acid, and place the crude MNT in a clean beaker.

Wash the MNT in a similar manner as nitroglycerine - add it to a generous portion of warm water, stir vigorously for ten minutes, and return it to the separatory funnel and let stand until it separates. Repeat this washing procedure until the water residue tests neutral for acid.

Once it tests neutral, the final result is pure mononitrotoluene. I'll show you a neat use for it in the next post.
>> No. 3214 ID: 8c1454
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MNT is a very limpdick liquid explosive. Its primary use is to undergo two further nitration reactions to create TRInitrotoluene - TNT. But in the early days somebody came up with a really neat way to use it.

As many here are aware, I have an obsession with obscure knowledge. Here is another piece of it for your consumption.

Ever heard of an explosive called Nobel 808?

Sure you have, you just don't know it yet.

Nobel 808 was the first military, mass produced plastic explosive ever. A formula very close to it is STILL in use today in Britain - it is the plastic explosive used in HESH-type tank rounds!

Blocks of it were also provided to the British operatives in the SOE, and large amounts were used by the LRDG for sabotage missions. AND! Remember Operation Valkrie? Not the Tom Cruise movie, the real one. Guess the explosive used in the briefcase that was intended to take out Hitler? That's right bitches. We're about to make literal History.

>Lewes Bomb

>Developed by Jock Lewes, second in command of the SAS, the bomb was a one pound charge consisting of thermite, Nobel 808 plastic explosive. and a flammable liquid (motor oil). Using a delayed fuse, the charge was placed on enemy aircraft. The preferred location of placement was where the wing met the fuselage . This was thought to be the best place to cause the most damage. (Aircraft often had their fuel cells in the wings.)

>The Lewes bomb came about because grenades and other explosive devices proved unreliable. Lewes' formula was a pound of plastic explosive, and a quarter pound of thermite mixed with a bit of diesel oil. Inside the mass was inserted a 2-ounce dry guncotton primer and detonator and a thirty-second fuse. The most common ignition method used was time pencils or pencil detonators. Others included release switches and pressure switches.

>The Lewes bomb was a field expedient explosive. It is unclear what the container for the explosive was but it was probably a simple canvas sack or pouch as was common at the time. The bomb was usually placed and not thrown.

>Plastic Explosive (Nobel 808) is a type of explosive material that is stable over a wide temperature range, easily shaped by hand, and relatively stable. Most formulations can be struck and /or burned with causing an explosion. The most common plastic explosive used by the British during World War II was developed by the Nobel Chemicals Ltd. and was commonly known as "Nobel 808". It looked like green Play-doh and smelled faintly of almonds. During WW2 it was extensively used by the British Commandos, Royal Engineers and the Special Operations Executive (SOE) .

Nobel 808 is an obscure little explosive in terms of technical data, and after a lot of hunting I turned up the following recipe:

>Nobel's 808 (by weight)
Calcium Carbonate....0.5%
Mono Nitro Toluene...22.0%

Detonation Velocity: ~6600m/s
Brisance: High
Stability: High
Sensitivity: Low to moderate - will safely withstand mildly rough handling and fair temperature ranges. Can tolerate cold temperatures without freezing, unlike dynamite.
Toxicity: Mild, but exposure on bare skin or inhalation of fumes can cause severe acute headache ("nitro" headache).

The MNT could be produced from the waste acids from both the NG and NC syntheses, so this plastic explosive could be made in very large quantities very cheaply and very efficiently, using a minimum of expensive nitric acid.

>In a large beaker VERY GENTLY add an amount of 61.5% by weight of pure, neutralized nitroglycerine.

>To the NG, very carefully add 22% by weight of mononitrotoluene and stir gently for ten minutes.

>To the resulting mixture add .5% by weight of calcium carbonate, and stir gently for ten minutes.

>Measure out 16% by weight of dry, acid-free, clean nitrocellulose. Tease the nitrocellulose gently with the hands. USE ANTI STATIC SPRAY AND WEAR GLOVES! Divide it as finely as possible.

>VERY gently, start adding the nitrocellulose to the mixture in small pinches, stirring them into the liquid thoroughly. The more you add and the more you stir, the thicker the gel will become. Continue until all the NC has been added, and continue stirring for fifteen minutes.

Allow the finished mixture to set in a cool, dry place. The final result is a green, doughy substance smelling of almonds, with similar explosive power to straight TNT. Keep it in a cool, dry place, don't sniff it real deeply, and make sure you wear gloves when handling it unless you want a headache from hell!

Congratulations on making a very useful little piece of history, OPERATOR!
>> No. 3218 ID: 28e84c
This seems like an all around winner explosive if all youve said about it is true.
>> No. 3222 ID: 5b9651
File 136346365241.jpg - (567.91KB , 964x768 , 808 gel.jpg )


The reactions for both NG and NC scale up as big as you want, so you can make shitloads of it in big batches easily. The leftover acid is used to make the MNT, and you combine the three to make as much of this stuff as you want.

I kinda rushed into it in response to Soren's question.

So why was 808 replaced in general use? Explosives like C4 and SEMTEX are a fair bit more powerful (7500-8000m/s VoD versus 6600) and are less toxic. The nitro headache from 808 won't kill you, but you can handle C4, for example, barehanded and not get sick at all. Still, for an amateur production facility, 808 is HAAAAARD to beat for efficiency. The only real limit is how much sulfuric acid you can get - almost everything else is made!
>> No. 3225 ID: 6fced1
Hmm. Seems like a winner to me, "Wear gloves" is certainly a simple enough instruction for a squad of grunts to use.

Method of detonation?

I almost feel bad for asking about this stuff, I know that I'm basically going to remember what bang to use, then do all the research later when it becomes possible.
>> No. 3227 ID: 8c1454
File 136349787365.jpg - (73.16KB , 416x405 , 1302886842178.jpg )

Reportedly any standard #8 commercial or issue military blasting cap will set it off. I'll be covering detonators soon, once we knock out a few more basic explosives. I even have a really neat recipe for a stupidly easy to make boosted detonator (the main ingredient you don't even make, just buy it OTC and use it). With a 2 or 3 gram booster added, it can set off just about any explosive you could ever want, and is reasonably safe to boot.

Don't stop, I actually really like answering questions. That's half the fun of these threads, because sometimes people will hit me with stuff I legit don't know or hadn't thought of and I have to go learn more!
>> No. 3228 ID: 6fced1
Man, how have you not tested this?

Still sounds like a winner, though. I'll have to remember this, it's going into the notebook.

The ultimate realization of Sun-Tzu's statement that a general who knows both himself and his enemies will never know danger in a hundred battles. Unless, of course, he's surrounded by trained assassins that he's manipulated into supporting him.

There's just no way that could ever go wrong.
>> No. 3229 ID: 6fced1

Alright, I remember your shaped charge thread, at least enough of the basics that I could make it work if needed. standoff being equal to the thickness one wants to cut, etc.

What sort of bang do you recommend for such?
>> No. 3230 ID: 28e84c
So im guessing C4 and SEMTEX are quite hard to make in any practical quantity (and the military does it anyway because it has too much money)
>> No. 3232 ID: 5b9651
File 136353856613.jpg - (113.59KB , 800x1132 , Oxygen-balance---Q.jpg )

Yep. That, and the main chemical needed if you want to bulk produce C4 is very tightly controlled by the DEA. I don't remember if its meth or smack, but its got a major use in some nasty drug synth. C4 in its original incarnation was 92% RDX explosive, 7% mineral oil, and a 1% lecithin binder. What they use today uses ethyl sebacate and polyisobutylene rubber in similar proportions. The hard part is RDX. You can make it in the lab, but lab-scale production yields are pathetic, the synth itself is pretty hard, and the components are both expensive and restricted. Its basically a "dick waving" explosive - you get to say "ooh! I made C4 in the lab! Look at my two whole grams of it!" lol.

SEMTEX is a moo-goo-gai-pan of explosives. The main one in it is PETN at around 70%, but you'll find TNT and MNT, and dinitrotoluene and nitroglycerine and a whole host of other stuff with all kinds of random binders and shit. They only thing they keep consistent is its detonation pressure curve. The exact makeup from batch to batch can vary widely.

We'll be looking at an analog of C4 and SEMTEX using ETN as the main explosive a little later.


You need to reread that thread m8. Standoff distance varies wildly with cone angle. Penetration is affected by cone diameter. Just print the whole page to a .pdf and save the charts and figures I posted as pics.

As far as bang goes, the bigger the better. I'm currently researching a combination of TNT and ETN as a sort of pseudo-Pentolite, but we can look at other options too. R-Salts will be a wonderful choice if I can ever crack just how to fucking utilize it. Nobel 808, if packed tightly and carefully vibrated to remove air bubbles, and set off with a potent booster charge would certainly make for decent shaped charges. On a scale of 1 to 10, I'd rate it about a seven, if that answers your question.
>> No. 3236 ID: 0a488a
Hey Acid man, do you know any recipes for ammunition primers?
>> No. 3237 ID: 8c1454
File 136357222055.jpg - (9.94KB , 320x240 , pbpic3.jpg )
Alright, time for the next one.

Remember when I did Picric Acid, AKA TNP, and said that it was the precursor for some other, useful explosives?

Well here they come. You see, those horribly dangerous picrate salts that I mentioned to avoid at all costs really ARE just that fucking dangerous. With a couple of exceptions. It turns out that by deliberately reacting TNP with certain materials, you can end up with a useful explosive that is totally different from TNP itself. And the synths are ridiculously easy since TNP is just so goddamned reactive. They basically amount to "make solution > mix > filter > wash > done!"

The first one is a fun one - Lead Picrate. LP is actually a pretty useful explosive. It is a primary explosive - meaning that you can set it off easily with a spark or flame.

Explosives in general tend to fall into one of four categories, with certain ones overlapping.

>PRIMARY explosives are modestly powerful but VERY sensitive explosives. You can detonate them with spark, flame, or shock very easily. These are the most dangerous, so you use them in tiny quantities to set off bigger, safer secondary explosives. Examples: HMTD, Lead Styphnate, Lead Picrate, Mercury Fulminate, Silver Fulminate, Silver Acetylide.

>SECONDARY explosives are explosives that are slightly less sensitive than primaries (require an explosion to initiate them) but significantly more powerful. These are used along with primary explosives to amplify their explosion energy to help trigger other explosives. Examples: Pure RDX, Pure ETN, Pure PETN, Lead Azide, Picric Acid, Nitroglycerine.

>BOOSTER explosives are explosives that are fairly stable and modestly hard to detonate and are usually expensive or hard to produce, but offer EXTREME power in small amounts. These greatly amplify the energy of a small explosion so that it can be used to trigger a large mass of explosive or a particularly stubborn, hard to detonate explosive by setting it off with a tremendous shock. Examples: Tetryl, Gelignite, RDX or ETN pressed to maximum density, Pentolite.

>BULK explosives are explosives that make up the mass of an explosive outside the detonator. They tend to be inexpensive, though not always, depending on the application. They also tend to be difficult to detonate, which is desirable considering that they tend to be utilized by the kilogram instead of by the gram. Most familiar explosives fall into this category. Specific Examples: TNT, Guncotton, Gelignite, Ammonium Nitrate, Dynamite, Astrolite, C4, SEMTEX, Tovex, Amatol, Ammonal, Pentolite

The way you make an explosion happen is with something called the "Explosive Train." You start with a spark of energy, like from a fuse or electric squib. This sets off a tiny bit (.25-1.5grams) of a sensitive primary explosive, which detonates a nearby modest bit (1-5grams) of secondary explosive, which explodes and initiates a (5-10grams) booster, which is embedded in a big pile (skies the limit, depending on confinement) of bulk explosive.

Lead Picrate

Detonation Velocity: ~4400m/s
Brisance: High
Sensitivity: VERY HIGH! Detonates from shock, spark, or flame VERY easily. Handle with extreme care!
Toxicity: High. Causes moderate to severe skin and eye irritation, potentially fatal if ingested.

Lead Monoxide (white powder granules, available online or from art supply stores that do ceramics and pottery)
Picric Acid from our earlier synth
Distilled Water

>To a small beaker add 10ml of methanol and heat it gently on your hotplate.

>Add 2 grams of picric acid to the warm methanol, continue heating, and stir it until no solids remain. It will turn to a soupy, yellowish liquid.

>To this liquid add 2 grams of Lead(II) Oxide, finely powdered, and continue stirring.

>Shortly after the mixture begins to boil, a reaction will occur which causes it to suddenly thicken, like batter. Continue boiling for three minutes, or until the mixture has become too thick to stir easily. BE WARY OF LARGE CLUMPS FORMING, KEEP STIRRING AND KEEP THE MIXTURE AS SMOOTHLY FLOWING AS POSSIBLE! DO NOT LET CRYSTALS CLUMP ON THE INSIDES OF THE BEAKER!

>Remove the beaker from the heat source and continue stirring it to prevent hotspots. When it is only warm to the touch, very carefully scrape out the thick pudding-like yellow material and place it in a fulter-paper lined funnel.

>Wash the material on the funnel with large amounts of methanol, until the resulting wash liquid becomes completely clear. Transfer it to a clean filter and wash it again. THE MATERIAL IS VERY SENSITIVE! DO NOT JAR IT, BUMP IT ROUGHLY, OR SCRAPE IT! HANDLE WITH GREAT CARE!

>After washing, transfer the remaining crystals to a ceramic plate, spreading them in a very thin layer. Place the plate in the oven and heat it very slowly to 190 degrees Fahrenheit and hold the temperature there for two hours.

Turn off the oven and let the material cool slowly. The result will be a fine yellow-red colored powder. This is pure Lead Picrate. Four grams of it pressed in a detonator will detonate most secondary explosives and some boosters.
>> No. 3238 ID: 8c1454
File 13635730319.jpg - (47.11KB , 372x550 , 4b0acf6112803421318585.jpg )

The old dudes in Khyber Pass will knock the spent primers out of a spent casing, use a needle to pick the little metal "anvil" out from the inside, remove the dent in the primer face with a block and a punch, and then put a pinch of potassium chlorate (from ground up strike-anywhere match heads) in there. Then they carefully re-seat the anvil, crimp it in very gently, and load the primer back into the casing.

Not great, but it works.
>> No. 3241 ID: 0a488a
wounder how reliable those are? I always figured if the government really wanted disarm the populace, making primers scarcer then hen's teeth would be a quick way to go about it. All the guns in the world wouldn't matter if you couldn't afford to train and use them.
>> No. 3242 ID: ffc9e7
Acid man, have you ever wanted to take up a few metal working classes? I think it would mesh well with what you do.
>> No. 3244 ID: 5b9651
File 136361574113.jpg - (185.73KB , 640x480 , 6058037873_10bacbb0e4_z.jpg )

I did metals for 2 years in high school and a half year in college. What I REALLY need is a small shop, but don't have the time, room, or money. In particular I want to learn metal spinning. Just another one of those things on the big Life Checklist left to do.
>> No. 3257 ID: 8c1454
File 136367591823.jpg - (155.93KB , 666x544 , Hodges-AmmoniumPicrate.jpg )
Next up is a similar explosive with a very unique use:

>Ammonium Picrate

Ammonium Picrate actually has a US military explosive designation - it is called Composition D. And it has a very unique property among high explosives: It is both very powerful, and incredibly insensitive to shock.

>Ammonium picrate is a salt formed by reacting picric acid and ammonia. It may be noted as the first explosive used in an aerial bombing operation in military history, performed by Italian pilots in Libya in 1911.[3] It was used extensively by the United States Navy during World War I. Though Dunnite was generally considered an insensitive substance, by 1911 the United States Army had abandoned its use in favor of other alternatives. The Navy, however, used it in armor-piercing artillery shells and projectiles, and in coastal defense.

>Dunnite typically did not detonate on striking heavy armor. Rather, the shell encasing it would penetrate the armor, after which the charge would be triggered by a fuse.

That's from the Wiki, and isn't entirely correct. The Army continued to use it throughout World War 2 as the explosive in a particular munition, and for the same reason: The APCBC anti-tank shell. The name stands for "Armor-piercing capped, ballistic capped." On impact, the round would either penetrate a tank's armor, or embed itself deeply into it before exploding - punching through and wiping out the crew. This is the only readily-made explosive capable of withstanding the shock of projectile impact.

>Ammonium picrate, also called 2,4,6-trinitrophenol ammonium salt, ammonium trinitrophenolate, Dunnite, or Explosive D, is prepared in much the same way as nitrogen triiodide. Ammonium picrate was first prepared in 1841 by a scientist named Marchand. It was not used until 1869 when it was mixed with potassium nitrate as a propellent for rifles. Alfred Nobel patented it in 1888 for Dynamites. The US Army picked it up in 1901, and the Navy floated it in 1907. It saw peak production during WWII but has since fallen victim to progress in chemistry. This explosive is relatively stable, therefore safer to prepare and handle.

Detonation Velocity: 7150m/s
Brisance: Moderate, slightly less than TNT.
Sensitivity: Very mild - one of the safest explosives to handle in terms of bumps and shocks, but still fairly sensitive to spark and flame.
Toxicity: Moderate. Can cause severe poisoning if ingested, avoid direct skin and contact.
Stability: Weak to moderate. Pure red form will degrade to a yellow oxidized state over time. The yellow state is much more sensitive and less stable, but of equal power. KEEP IT DRY.


Pure Picric Acid / TNP
Clear, unscented household ammonia
Distilled water
750ml beaker

>Add 1 gram of picric acid crystals to the beaker and add enough distilled water to cover them, plus a little excess.

>Heat the solution on the hotplate to with continuous stirring until all of the picric acid has dissolved and no solids remain. At this point turn off the heat.

>To the hot picric acid solution, carefully add 450ml of clear household ammonia while stirring vigorously. The exact amount doesn't matter in this particular case, but there must be a major excess of it. I chose 450ml as an arbitrary amount based on the typical ammonium hydroxide concentrations found in household ammonia - feel free to use more.

>Continue stirring the solution vigorously for fifteen minutes, then let it stand and fully evaporate.

All of the picric acid will react with the ammonium hydroxide from the ammonia solution, leaving a solution of ammonium picrate crystals suspended in water and leftover ammonia. As the latter two will evaporate on their own, the only thing that will be left in the beaker is pure ammonium picrate. You can speed up the evaporation by pouring the solution into a shallow ceramic dish and leaving it in a sunny spot for a few hours. The finished product does not require washing, and will resemble reddish-yellow or brown crystals. Keep them very dry for best results.
>> No. 3258 ID: 75c8bf
>Navy floated it
i c wat u did thar

So, can one make this in any meaningful quantities? And when you say it degrades... how long can you store and still use it (safely) the way it's intended?
>> No. 3260 ID: 5b9651


Oh yes, there is an industrial process for making TNP that we'll be looking at later. Once you have the TNP you can make as much ammonium picrate as you want - just scale it up and use cooling equipment, which we will also be covering.

As far as degradation, it takes a couple months in storage for the red form to oxidize and turn yellow. That doesn't mean you can't still use it, mind you. It's just as good as an explosive, it just becomes more sensitive and you couldn't put it in shells anymore. Handle the yellow form with care and you'll be good to go.

Lead Picrate, Picric Acid, and Ammonium Picrate have a nice synergy as well. One of the few things you can combine with picric acid without risk of reaction danger are picrate salts. The next post will start getting into what you can do with them.
>> No. 3261 ID: 5b9651
File 136370994538.jpg - (47.22KB , 369x290 , Detonator%20Group_JPG.jpg )
Time for a contentious subject.

There are a lot of recipes floating around the net for explosives. Every idiot high school punk has probably risked blowing his fingers off at some point by making something out of a ____cookbook or _____handbook. Facts of life.

But explosives are only useful if you can set them off with something. The biggest pile of TNT in the world is no good if you don't have a detonator. And the rule of detonators, with VERY few exceptions is:

>Effective, Safe, Homemade - Pick Two.

What we're going to address are a couple of those exceptions.

I'm going to give initial credit for some of this to Ragnar Benson. His book on Homemade Detonators is probably the finest guide anyone has ever written in the clear about blasting cap design, though I find the use of HMTD in his recipe somewhat troubling. Organic peroxide explosives scare the cap out of me, both personally and professionally. HMTD is the least dangerous of them, and is still radically more sensitive than I like.

First we're going to talk theory, then explosives, then use and handling.

>So what IS a detonator or "blasting cap", exactly?

It is a small tube containing a powerful, sensitive explosive, or mixture of explosives, that incorporates a means of deliberately detonating those explosives without the use of an originating explosion - such as flame, spark, heat, or electrical shock, and which is to be incorporated into a larger mass of bulk explosive material in order to detonate it with the shockwave thus produced.

>As a very basic example of principle, I want you to imagine a Black Cat firecracker. It is a small tube, made of paper in this case, that contains an explosive (flash powder - a very weak explosive made from potassium perchlorate OXIDIZER and aluminum powder FUEL, but an explosive nonetheless). At one end is a fuse protruding out from the explosive and sealed in place. The tube is sealed at the ends so the explosive can't get out, and moisture or other contaminants can't get in. Imagine shaking a Black Cat. Do you hear anything move? NO. The explosive inside is tamped, or packed tightly, so it can't jostle around and has high DENSITY. Break the Black Cat in half. The paper tube is pretty thick, isn't it? That helps CONFINE the explosive, making sure it all burns up at once. Think how a Black Cat works - You light the fuse, & the black powder in the fuse burns until it reaches the paper case and goes inside. Once the spark touches the flash powder, the mass of DENSE, CONFINED explosive, "pop!" - the material all burns up at once, rupturing the paper case with a satisfying explosion.

Now, a Black Cat by itself is a very weak explosion - WAY below the levels of even weak high explosives. But we're going to use one to illustrate the number one key factor in detonator design: TOTAL ENERGY RELEASE - (detonation velocity, brisance, and total quantity) OF THE DETONATOR VERSUS SENSITIVITY AND MASS OF THE EXPLOSIVE TO BE DETONATED.

Lets illustrate the extremes with our Black Cat firecracker example.

We'll pick a real explosive that all of you are already familiar with - Tannerite. Tannerite is mostly Ammonium Nitrate - a VERY stable, insensitive explosive. It is so insensitive that even when mixed with a catalyst to make it more sensitive, it still takes the force of a high-power rifle round to set it off. Our detonator - the Black Cat - is weak, with a small charge of low brisance and velocity. If we poke the Black Cat down into the Tannerite and light the fuse, the only thing we'll get for our trouble is a pop, some Tannerite flying up, and some smoke.

Now lets go to the opposite end of the scale. Sure, the Black Cat is weak. But Nitroglycerine is VERY sensitive. If we float the Black Cat is a test tube of nitroglycerine and light the fuse.... well I'll simply say you should NOT be holding any part of it in your hand, or be anywhere nearby when the fuse runs out, LOL.

So the design of the detonator depends on what explosives you're using. The more explosive you want to set off, or the more insensitive it is, the more power you need in the detonator. So how do you make a detonator more powerful? With that wonderful EXPLOSIVE TRAIN we talked about a few posts ago.

Example: Say we took our Black Cat now, and we float it in a test tube of nitroglycerine again. And now we poke the test tube of nitroglycerine down into the jar of Tannerite. We then light the fuse and run like hell. What happens?

>The SPARK from the fuse enters the Black Cat and DETONATES the flash powder within. The SHOCK of the exploding flash powder causes the test tube full of sensitive nitroglycerine to DETONATE violently, and this releases a much larger SHOCK into the surrounding Tannerite, causing it to DETONATE as well!

An explosive train is sort of like a puzzle. You know where you start - a spark or flame, and where you want to end up - a mass of particular explosive going off, and you have to figure out what pieces you need to fill in the gap in the safest way possible. The hard part is minimizing the amount of PRIMARY explosive used. You want to keep as little of the hair-trigger stuff around as humanly possible.
>> No. 3271 ID: 8c1454
Ah, Ragnar Benson. The purportedly crazy Norwegian survivalist. Many of his books consist of neat ideas interspersed with incomplete crap. But he did do one book that I admire - Ragnar's Homemade Detonators.


Why do I like this book? Well first I'll tell you what I DON'T like - the author relies heavily on HMTD explosive - an organic peroxide, for his blasting caps. I hate organic peroxides. HMTD is the most stable of the bunch, but is still an unpredictable bitch and VERY unforgiving, and he uses multiple GRAMS of it in his caps. So you're aware, a HALF GRAM of primary explosive is considered by the actual explosives industry to be way too goddamned much for safety. You can do it his way, but you'd better keep your asshole firmly puckered.

But what I DO love about that book is the detail in which he goes into the physical design of the blasting cap - what kind of tubing to use, how to line it, how to crimp it, and how to assemble both fused and electric detonators. He might be using amateur materials and a dangerous primary explosive, but his designs are very professional in quality.

I'm going to start with my own take on a detonator, and then a modified version of one of his, and finally we'll look at how to make HMTD if you want to try his way.
>> No. 3272 ID: 8c1454
File 136374854487.png - (273.89KB , 1360x768 , detonator press.png )
>The Acid Man Detonator

You'll note that when I intend to show you something neat, I tend to build the pieces of it up for you first. I showed you how to make nitroglycerine, nitrocellulose, and mononitrotoluene first, and then how it could be used for Nobel 808, as one example.

Well we just covered three others: Picric acid, lead picrate, and ammonium picrate. So guess what? Yes, these are the three ingredients in my detonator. You will need to prepare them in the following amounts:

>THREE grams of Lead Picrate will serve as the primary.
>TWO grams of phlegmatized Picric Acid will serve as the secondary.
>ONE gram of Ammonium Picrate will serve as the built-in booster.

To use in this detonator, you should phlegmatize (de-sensitize and bind) the Picric Acid crystals a bit. This is done by melting together one part by weight paraffin wax and 3 parts petroleum jelly in a beaker on a war hotplate. To this add 9 parts of Picric Acid crystals and gently knead them together for fifteen minutes until they become a thick, sticky mass. Allow it to cool, then measure out TWO GRAMS for use in the detonator.

Ragnar had the right idea using thin aluminum tubing, but I like a bit bigger critical diameter than he does. Source yourself some aluminum tubing from a hobby shop. I like mine to be 5/16" diameter, but 1/4" can work. Carefully cut the tubing into 4" lengths with a fine hacksaw. Why so long, compared to that pretty picture of short blasting caps from the post above? We have to take into account the HUMAN FACTOR. At some point you're probably going to fuck this up - and the more distance between your hand and the explosive train packed into the bottom of the tube, the better.

The next step is to coat the tube, inside and out, with an acid resistant material. Pour a tall graduated cylinder full of clear lacquer, and dip the ENTIRE aluminum tube into it, clear down to the bottom of the cylinder. Remove it carefully, let it dry and apply a second coat the same way - this coats the tube inside and out, protecting from contact with the Picric Acid. While the second coat is still wet, use the very edge of a set of flat-nosed pliers to crimp the bottom of the tube tightly shut. Crimp it as close to the end as possible, and make sure it forms a tight, straight seam. Dip the whole outside end of the tube in clear lacquer and let dry to ensure a good external seal, then put a few small drops of lacquer down into the bottom of the tube with an eyedropper to seal it internally. This end will be the bottom of the tube, and will contain the explosive train.

Next you will need the following:

Silicone caulk.
A 2 foot length of cannon fuse.
A quarter gram of any smokeless gunpowder.
A pair of crimping pliers.
A cotton ball.
The Blasting Cap Press

>The Blasting Cap Press

This is not an optional piece of equipment. For a good detonator, the explosives within have to be pressed to very high density. SQUASHING a sensitive primary explosive while praying it decides not to go off, is NOT something one does with bare hands!

A good design for the press is illustrated here:


See page 232 of 273. It's nothing but a long 2X4 fixed to a hinge, with a wooden blast shield and a holder for the detonator and a tamping peg. Take your time, put your internet porn away, and go build it. If you try this without one, you're retarded or worse. And you WILL die.

The explosives are deposited into the detonator tube in layers. You'll add half of each explosive, press, and then add the other half and press again before moving on to the next explosive.

>Start with one gram of Ammonium Picrate

Add half a gram of the ammonium picrate to the tube, trickling it in and very gently tapping the side of the tube to make it settle to the bottom. Insert the tamping rod, get back behind the blast shield, and gently, slowly, pull down on the end of the 2X4 until you have all your weight on it. Hold there for five seconds. CAREFULLY, SLOWLY, take your weight off the 2X4 and gently lift up, removing the tamping rod from the detonator body, being careful not to jiggle, scrape, or drop it roughly.

Add the remaining half gram of ammonium picrate to the detonator tube as before, and repeat the pressing.

>The second layer is two grams phlegmatized Picric Acid.

Divide the two grams of TNP you prepared earlier into equal halves. Add the first half to the the tube, gently prodding it in with a plastic knife or similar. Set the tamping rod, and very, VERY gently press it into place using all your body weight as you did for the ammonium picrate. Withdraw the tamp, add the second half of the picric acid, and repeat.

>The final layer is three grams of lead picrate.

This is the most dangerous step. You're going to add this one in THIRDS, pressing at each step. Be ESPECIALLY CAREFUL not to jostle the press as you're putting your weight on it or taking it off. Press slowly, gently, and evenly. Watch out for the tamping rod itself after each pressing - it will have explosive residue from the lead picrate on it, and CAN blow you up!

>Finishing and arming

The final step is to add the initiator - the fuse assembly. On top of the layer of Lead Picrate, gently add just a pinch of any commercial smokeless gunpowder. This is to give the end of the fuse a little extra "oomph!" to make sure everything goes to plan. That would be a lot of work to waste on a fizzle, right? Don't tamp the gunpowder - leave it loose.

Once the gunpowder is added, gently place the fuse all the way down inside, and make sure it is embedded in the gunpowder and approximately touching the lead picrate near the inside wall of the detonator casing. Insert a piece of the cotton ball into the end of the detonator tube next to the fuse - just enough for a snug fit, and use a wooden dowel to gently press it down into the tube. Don't tamp it hard, just press. It is only there to retain the fuse. The final step is to put a moderate glob of silicone caulk down the tube, and likewise press it into the bottom gently with a wooden dowel.

Set the detonator aside in a cool, dry place so that the silicone can dry for a day. As it dries, it will swell up in the tube and seal the assembly together perfectly. The detonator is now finished.

The burning fuse will flash-ignite the gunpowder, ensuring a hefty spark to ignite the lead picrate. Lead picrate explodes from flame with just enough power that three grams of it can reliably "high order" detonate a small amount of Picric Acid. The Picric Acid, in turn, has just enough explosive power that two grams of it can reliably detonate ammonium picrate. And as we can see by its high detonation velocity of 7150m/s, ammonium picrate releases a lot of energy when it detonates - enough to set off just about any other explosive you please!
>> No. 3273 ID: 5b9651
File 136382061770.jpg - (33.00KB , 323x229 , blastingcap-spotlight.jpg )
I should also add that my detonator is massively overbuilt in terms of payload. What is in there is a ton of explosive by cap standards - it'll even detonate straight ammonium nitrate. It is by no means typical.

In fact, one could choose to leave out the ammonium picrate and picric acid entirely for detonating many common bulk explosives like dynamite or TNT. Three grams of pressed lead picrate can set off the majority of them all by itself.

>the more you know.jpg
>> No. 3280 ID: 653a84
File 136386162078.jpg - (182.51KB , 1024x768 , 1509925-ultra_bolter.jpg )
>Ammonium Picrate
>This is the only readily-made explosive capable of withstanding the shock of projectile impact.

Holy shit why didn't I think of this sooner?
>> No. 3286 ID: 5b9651
File 136389135926.jpg - (8.71KB , 300x240 , Boxer-Primer.jpg )
>A modification of Ragnar's Idea.

In Ragnar's book, he goes into a very keen example for a ready-made explosive. He claims that by salvaging the primer material from "seven large pistol primers" you can pack it into a detonator and have an explosive ready to go. Like a lot of things, he leaves out too much goddamned info.

First off, not all large pistol primers are the same. Most DO, however, use the same main ingredient - Lead Styphnate.

>Lead styphnate (lead 2,4,6-trinitroresorcinate, C6HN3O8Pb ), whose name is derived from styphnic acid, is an explosive used as a component in primer and detonator mixtures for less sensitive secondary explosives.

>There are two forms of lead styphnate: six-sided monohydrate crystals and small rectangular crystals. Lead styphnate varies in color from yellow to brown. Lead styphnate is particularly sensitive to fire and the discharge of static electricity. When dry, it can be readily detonated by static discharges from the human body. The longer and narrower the crystals, the more susceptible lead styphnate is to static electricity. Lead styphnate does not react with metals and is less sensitive to shock and friction than mercury fulminate or lead azide. Lead styphnate is only slightly soluble in water and methyl alcohol and may be neutralized by a sodium carbonate solution. It is stable in storage, even at elevated temperatures.

Sounds pretty good for something you can just buy OTC, doesn't it? Too bad, because lead styphnate by itself doesn't work well as a detonator. Yes, it explodes - but its detonation velocity and brisance are both weak-to-moderate. That limits it's usefulness.

Not only that, but firearm primer material can contain all sorts of shit besides lead styphnate depending on what the manufacturer wanted. You can't just grab a random box off the shelf and get to it.

So seeing this, I formulated a plan of attack.

First I went through several pages of research on different Primers, until I found one that had the fewest number of ingredients.

>CCI / Speer Large Pistol Primers contain only pure Lead Styphnate mixed with a small amount of Barium Nitrate. the Barium compound is a moderate oxidizer, and increases the power of the Styphnate. Specially you want the following primers:

.50 Cal. Primers #35
M115 Mod A & Mod B
9MM NATO #82 Primers

No others are suitable for salvage.

We also need to use a sensitive secondary, to make sure the weak explosion from the styphnate will have enough oomph to set off whatever bulk explosive you're using. In my idea, we will use a small amount of ETN - about a half-gram. ETN has a known property of "enhancing" its reaction when in contact with aluminum.

The "Acid Ragnar Detonator" is made in the same type of body tube as the previous example, but instead we will add components in this order:

>500mg of pure ETN, tightly wrapped up in a small piece of aluminum foil, like a little Hershey's Kiss, just big enough to fit down the detonator tube.

This little wad is carefully pressed into the bottom of the detonator using the Blasting Cap Press. It should be pressed several times to ensure compactness. Remember - add and remove weight from the lever SLOWLY, CAREFULLY, and SMOOTHLY. Insert a long ice pick down the detonator tube by using the Blasting Cap Press, and carefully poke a hole into the compacted pellet of ETN. Alternatively, a tiny ball of aluminum foil can be pressed down the tube and compacted first, and the ETN added on top of it and pressed.

>3 grams of Lead Styphnate salvaged from appropriate CCI primers.

This is added to the tube in three parts, pressing carefully after each one. Styphnate is INCREDIBLY static sensitive, so use anti-static spray liberally on everything a few minutes before handling it. This stuff is your primary, so remember to press CAREFULLY. Styphnate is fairly safe to bump if you're gentle, but you have to avoid heating or sparking it at all costs.

After the pressing add the pinch of gunpowder, fuse, cotton ball, and silicone sealant as before.
>> No. 3287 ID: 5b9651

Now there are a couple potential problems that we should look into. The first is the potential acidity of the Styphnate reacting with the ETN (THAT WOULD BE VERY BAD!). A good exorcise would be to test the recovered styphnate for acidity and neutralize it with a wash of baking soda solution if it comes up acid.

The other problem could be a gap formed by poking a hole into the ETN before adding the styphnate. Packing the ETN on top of a pressed ball of AL foil and then simply adding styphnate to the top might be the superior way to go.

Lastly, we might consider binding both the ETN and the Styphnate by adding a tiny bit of wax to each, on the order of 5% by weight. That would help them press a bit better, but you'd be skirting the limits of power by adding inerts to the styphnate.
>> No. 3299 ID: 28e84c
By extension of this sudden realization, I wish to learn about delayed fuses. Specifically a delay of 3-4" worth of travel time in soft target.
>> No. 3303 ID: 529cf1
why even bother when you have hydroshock ammunition etc. readily available?
>> No. 3304 ID: 5b9651
File 136399266830.png - (283.61KB , 715x638 , hmtd.png )

Next we'll cover Ragnar's own detonator explosive. Hexamethylene Triperoxide Diamine. HMTD.

HMTD is a peroxide explosive, meaning that it consists of a peroxide group bonded to a chemical fuel. The problem with a peroxide is that the bond is very weak and unstable compared to other explosive bonds like nitration products. It inly takes a tiny input of energy to break one of the bonds and start the explosion reaction - and sometimes the bonds are weak enough that one will just fall apart, making the material seemingly explode with no cause visible.

Of all the peroxide explosives, HMTD is the closest to being safe, and its still more sensitive in every way than raw nitroglycerine. My first piece of advice to you, is don't make the stuff. My second piece of advice to you, is if you choose to ignore the first piece of advice, treat this stuff like it holds your very own soul within it. You get no second chances with this shit.


Detonation Velocity: ~8000m/s
Brisance: Very high
Volatility: Moderate. For best results use each batch within 30 days of making it.
Toxicity: Highly toxic if ingested or absorbed through the skin. Wear gloves.

Hexamine Tablets (from your stash of precursors)
6% "Hair Bleach" hydrogen peroxide (big pharmacies will have this)
Citric Acid (this comes in the form of white crystals in a big salt-shaker bottle. Look in the Canning section.)

First step is to isolate and purify the hexamine.

>Crush seven hexamine fuel tablets to a fine powder in the mortar and pestle. Add the powered tablets to a beaker of boiling distilled water and stir to separate the waxes and binders from the hexamine. Filter the liquid twice to remove all solid impurities, then evaporate most of the liquid by boiling. Let all the remaining liquid evaporate, and the white powder left will be pure hexamine.

>Measure 9 teaspoons of 6% hydrogen peroxide into a beaker and chill it to 5 degrees Celsius in the freezer. Prepare an ice bath while you're waiting for it to chill.

>Transfer the beaker of hydrogen peroxide to the ice bath, and maintain the temperature at near 5C. NEVER let the temperature above 10C! VERY slowly and carefully, add and dissolve 2 level teaspoons of pure hexamine in the ice cold peroxide. Stir gently until all the hexamine is dissolved, being very careful not to scrape the inside walls or bottom of the beaker with the stirring rod - that can actually create enough friction to detonate the entire beaker. YES, I AM SERIOUS, and NO, I am NOT exaggerating!

>Maintain the temperature at 5C for one hour. This can be tricky because you don't want the liquid to freeze, but have to keep it near freezing. You might be best served adjusting your freezer so that it holds a steady temperature of 5C, and just transfer the beaker to it after dissolving the hexamine. Either way, as it chills, transfer four and one half teaspoons of citric acid to your clean mortar and pestle and grind it very fine.

>After one hour, VERY GENTLY add the citric acid to the cold hexamine solution. I can not stress this enough - trickle it in VERY SLOWLY and with the MOST GENTLE STIRRING POSSIBLE. The liquid is essentially already a hair-trigger explosive, and you're pouring shit into it and agitating it. KEEP YOUR DISTANCE, and for God's sake WEAR HEAVY DUTY GLOVES AND GLASSES!

>Place the resultant solution back in the freezer at a slightly warmer 15 degrees Celsius and chill it for 24 hours. A crystalline material will precipitate out and sink to the bottom. This material is crude HMTD.

>After turning the room temperature down to 60 degrees Fahrenheit and drowning the entire room, including your shoes, in anti-static spray, very carefully allow the solution to warm to room temperature. CAREFULLY pour it through filter paper to collect the crystals.

>Place the crystals on a clean filter, and wash them twice with cold water and once with a 5% baking soda solution to neutralize any traces of citric acid.

>Transfer the neutralized HMTD to a new, clean filter and then wash it again with a three or four healthy doses of cold distilled water.

Set the crystals aside to dry in a cool, dry, dark place. the result is pure HMTD explosive. It is INCREDIBLY SENSITIVE. It can go off from being touched, stirred, HEATED ANYWHERE ABOVE 70 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT (yes, you read that right. It is unstable at room temperature), exposed to direct sunlight, or looked at funny. It won't keep more than a few days if warm - for longer storage put it in the freezer, and don't ever keep it longer than 30 days or it may spontaneously detonate.

If you kill yourself, don't blame me - I warned you in the first paragraph.
>> No. 3305 ID: 28e84c

any questions?
>> No. 3319 ID: 5b9651
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Now that we've covered some amateur approaches, you're probably asking yourself (as you should be) "so if this the amateur level stuff for detonators, what do the professionals use?"

Lets go ahead and jump into that for a minute.

If you were smart, you would already be asking questions like "so if this stuff is so sensitive and dangerous, how do more people not get blown up?" or "So wait, an artillery shell has a detonator in it, and you can literally shoot it out of a cannon without it going off. What do they use that's so safe?"

The answer to that question is one word: Lead Azide.

Azides are a very obscure explosive compared to how goddamned useful they are. After a hundred years of trial and error, somebody back in the 40s stumbled onto an explosive that is moderately powerful, moderately brisant, very good at detonating other explosives in small quantities, and you can quite literally jump up and down on a pile of it and it won't go off. It only goes off to a hot spark or flame. It is the Primary ingredient in ALL commercial and military detonators produced today. And the best part is that you only need milligrams of the stuff. 100mg of Lead Azide pressed on top of a gram of PETN is the standard recipe for a #8 commercial blasting cap. 150mg of Lead Azide pressed on top of a gram and a half of desensitized RDX is the standard for US Military detonators.

So, why hasn't ole' AM covered it yet?

Because good fucking luck making any.

Lead Azide is made from the reaction of two precursor chemicals: Lead Nitrate, and Sodium Azide. Neither of these are easy to come by.

There is actually one source for civilian Sodium Azide, and it isn't where you'd expect. Inside the airbags of older, pre-2000 cards, the explosive gas generator that inflates the airbag uses a charge of about a third of a kilo of Sodium Azide. To get at it, you have to find a junked car whose airbags weren't deployed - break into the steering column at the base, and find the heavy gas generator - a heavy metal box with slats or screens under the airbag. It will be welded and sealed, so a half hour with a SawZall and hacksaw blades, some cussing, and being very careful not to set the thing off will net you enough Sodium Azide for a couple hundred detonators worth of Lead Azide. This is the only known source for Sodium Azide that is not tightly restricted.

The Lead Nitrate is another matter. You're not making this one, so you'll have to buy it. Check out the pricing.


That's five bucks for THIRTY GRAMS. Expensive shit.

So given the two main precursors, how is Lead Azide made?

>Lead Azide
Detonation Velocity: ~5200m/s
Brisance: Moderately high
Stability: Very high for a primary - good for long term storage.
Sensitivity: Mild to moderate - avoid heat, flame, spark, and friction. Fairly resistant to shock and pressure, but quite sensitive to sparks.
Toxicity: Highly toxic - may be absorbed through the skin, eyes, and mouth contact. Causes liver toxicity.

Lead Nitrate
Sodium Azide
Sodium Hydroxide (ordinary lye, check for Red Devil lye in the cleaning aisle)
Dextrin - Pyrotechnic grade grade dextrin is required to prevent the formation of large crystal clumps in the Azide. If you leave it out, the mixture will self destruct from internal friction and take you along with it. You can find Dextrin here: http://www.hobbychemicalsupply.com/servlet/the-18/hobby-chemicals-dextrin-powder/Detail

Lead Azide is made by creating two solutions in two beakers: Formula A and Formula B. We then combine A and B and the result is Lead Azide.

>Dissolve 2.33 g of sodium azide and 0.058 g of sodium hydroxide in 70 mL of water by placing them in a flask, stirring together gently, and then corking the flask and shaking hard until all dissolves. This is solution A. Transfer this solution to a Separatory Funnel mounted above a hot water bath.

>Dissolve 6.9 g of lead nitrate and 0.35 g of dextrin in 90 mL water in a 250-mL beaker, Make some 10% sodium hydroxide solution by adding 1gram of hydroxide to ten grams of distilled water. Add 1 or 2 drops of the 10% sodium hydroxide, stir gently for a minute, and test the solution with litmus paper - you want a pH of about 5. This is solution B. Leave it in the beaker where you made it.

>VERY GENTLY heat solution B to 60-65C in a hot water bath and agitate it with a plastic stirring utensil. The stirring should be as efficient as possible to prevent the formation of large crystals. Stirring, while vigorous, should not produce any spattering of the mixture and the stirring should not rub against the walls of the beaker. FRICTION FROM THE STIRRING ROD WILL CAUSE THE ENTIRE BEAKER TO EXPLODE! BE CAREFUL!

>Gently, drop by drop from the separatory funnel, add solution A to the beaker of solution B while stirring and keeping the temperature constant at 60-65C. It should take about ten minutes to combine all of the solution.

>Remove the beaker from the water bath and continue stirring the mixture in the beaker while cooling to room temperature, this will take about 1 hour. As it cools, a precipitate will form and turn the mix cloudier. That is a cloud of small crystals of crude Lead Azide.

>Once the mixture has cooled to room temperature, let the Lead Azide crystals settle to the bottom of the beaker and carefully pour the beaker of material through a filter to collect the crystals. Wash the crystals with 50ml of water, then transfer them to a clean filter and wash with two more 50ml doses.

Spread the crystals thin on a ceramic plate and gently heat in the oven to 149 degrees for 8 hours. The dry mixture will be about 5 grams of small, opaque crystals of pure Lead Azide explosive.

>Five grams. All that work for five measely grams.
>> No. 3331 ID: 28e84c
well, 5 grams is still 50 detonators, right?

oh god this scares the shit out of me (and it probably should)
>> No. 3334 ID: 5b9651

Not quite 50. Since our steering wheel sodium azide isn't going to be completely pure, the resulting Lead Azide isn't quite as industrial strength as the big boy stuff. We're probably looking at more like 300mg per detonator, plus an energetic secondary like a half gram of phlegmatized, heavily neutralized ETN for reliable detonation. I'd also put a little bit of Lead Styphnate on top of the Azide - just a pinch, to give it a nice hot flash and make sure the Azide high-order detonates.
>> No. 3365 ID: 28e84c
Is there then any way to make the pure ingredients for industrial grade explosive?
>> No. 3376 ID: 8c1454

Not really. The only way to make PURE explosive is to start with pure, laboratory grade reagents. Most of the ones you need for the better explosives, especially something like Lead Azide, are very heavily restricted by either ATF or DEA. And even though the main suppliers will sell them under regulation to you on your explosives license, they almost never deal in small-scale quantities - you'll be ordering by the drumfull, the crateload, and the traincar. So you can do it if you have the dosh - but most of us don't.
>> No. 3377 ID: 0a488a
so........opchan fund-raiser for minimum order of the good stuff?
I mean, there is nothing keeping us from making the high end materials save proper licensing and cash? (and the sense and skill not to explode yourself)
>> No. 3379 ID: 4d074d
well i was under the impression that if the suppliers can somehow make pure reagents, anyone else can too, if you backtrack far enough to raw materials. It would just be more work. Am I wrong in that assumption?
>> No. 3381 ID: 5b9651

It can be done, but if you're looking at small-scale raw materials production I've looked into that extensively.

Sulfuric Acid, for instance, can be made from flowers of sulfur in a special catalytic "cooker." But the resulting liquid is only about 10% concentrated. Fortunately you can concentrate sulfuric by boiling it under vacuum. So this one can be done, but the yields are TINY. Sulfuric acid is normally mass produced by scavenging it as a byproduct from from the exhaust of places like power plants. They do it as much to keep it out of the atmosphere as they do to sell it, so they can bulk the stuff out cheap (relatively) by the barrel. A home made reactor for producing it would either make like a half-cupfull a day, or cost a fortune and be hugemongous.

Potassium Nitrate can be recovered from animal dung if you own a farm and want to collect a couple years worth of animal shit and pack it in special rows to harvest the nitrates. That's how it was done for gunpowder back in the 1500s-1800s. You can clean the crude stuff to make it pure. But again, the yields are tiny - you need literal TONS of dung to get a useful amount.

Pure nitric acid can be distilled if you bother with the first two - or you can use the birkeland-eyde electroplasma process to make weak nitric acid from thin air, then combine it with sulfuric acid to break the water azeotrope and distill it to increase purity. - See embed.

Sodium Azide, as a practical example, can be made from Hydrazine Hydrate(!!!!!!). Good luck getting that without killing yourself, and if you are - fuck azide, make Astrolite and use some other detonator, lol.

Most of the precursor industrial processes have to be huge in scale to make useful quantities of the pure stuff. We might look at certain things later that could be done - but you'll get an idea of the scale of the problem real fast.

Oh, FYI - this video shows how electromagnets are used to stretch a plasma arc into a rotating disc. It is fucking amazing, and you should totally watch it.
>> No. 3388 ID: 28e84c
Well thanks for clearing that up.

>More questions:
What about liquid explosives as bulk explosive?
That is, high explosives (charge) and low explosives (propellant)
Maybe some overlap with rocketry?
What liquid propellant would be even remotely viable in ammunition cartridges as we know them today?
What are they like in terms of acidity, toxicity, stability, sensitivity, etc?
>> No. 3403 ID: 8c1454
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Liquid explosives are doable, but most of them tend to be too much of two things: Volatile (turns to gas and evaporates quickly), and sensitive.

The Germans used a liquid explosive called Methyl Nitrate (mixed with about 15% methanol to reduce volatility somewhat) in a special series of land mines. One of the most powerful non-nuclear explosives ever discovered is called Astrolite G, which is a simple liquid explosive made by dissolving ammonium nitrate in liquid hydrazine. Others can be mixed with absorbent materials like sawdust or corn starch to gel them somewhat, but they're still pretty unsuitable for most applications, especially weapons since they never get truly even absorption. They've been used as blasting explosives though.

Liquid propellant for ammunition? Like, small arms, or rockets? Rockets are easy - liquid rockets were the first modern rocket type made, before the perfection of composite and smokeless solid propellants. Theres a huge history of liquid propellants out there already. Just mix a fuel (alcohol, kerosene, any of other various volatile hydrocarbons) with a liquid oxidizer (nitric acid, hydrazine, etc.) For small arms though.... hmm. That's a damned good question!

>> No. 3416 ID: 28e84c
Reason I ask is that in reloading, powder measures measure by volume. Liquids would allow for crazy consistency in loading without having to trickle EVERY. FUCKING. CARTRIDGE.

Also, liquid may just be in solution if not natively in liquid phase. It's all about the practical aspect.
>> No. 3445 ID: 5b9651
File 136483114675.jpg - (215.23KB , 648x486 , EBW Detonator.jpg )
So we now have something of an idea how a detonator works, how one is made, and what they are used for. We've also covered the main commercial and military detonator type - The Lead Azide detonator.

But what if I told you there was a type of detonator that didn't use any primary explosive at all?

Meet the EBW - The Exploding Bridgewire Detonator.

You know how a fuse blows out if too much current runs through it, making that loud "pop!"? What do you suppose would happen if you had a very thin fuse wire, and then you ran a WHOLE SHITLOAD of amps through it all at once?

The answer is: "A BIG POP!" Or more specifically, a small but powerful detonation occurs, as the fuse wire is instantly vaporized into high temperature plasma. The detonation can be so powerful, in fact, that it can set off a sensitive secondary explosive all by itself.

>EBWs were developed as a means of detonating multiple explosive charges simultaneously, mainly for use in plutonium-based nuclear weapons in which a plutonium core (called a “pit”) is compressed very rapidly. This is achieved via conventional explosives placed uniformly around the pit. The implosion must be highly symmetrical or the plutonium would simply be ejected at the low-pressure points. Consequently, the detonators must have very precise timing.

>An EBW has two main parts: a piece of fine wire which contacts the explosive, and a “strong” source of high-voltage electricity — strong, in that it holds up under sudden heavy load. When the wire is connected across this voltage, the resulting high current melts and then vaporizes the wire in a few microseconds. The resulting shock and heat initiate the high explosive.

>The bridgewire is usually made of gold, but platinum or gold/platinum alloys can also be used. The most common commercial bridgewire diameter and length is 1.5 and 40 mils (0.038 mm and 1 mm), but lengths ranging from 10 mils to 100 mils (0.25 mm to 2.5 mm) can be encountered. From the available explosives, only PETN at low densities can be initiated by sufficiently low shock to make its use practical in commercial systems as a part of the EBW initiator. It can be chained with another explosive booster, often a pellet of tetryl, RDX or some PBX (e.g. PBX 9407). Detonators without such booster are called "initial pressing detonators" (IP detonators).

>The EBW and the slapper detonator are the safest known types of detonators, as only a very high-current fast-rise pulse can successfully trigger them. However, they require a bulky power source for the current surges required. The extremely short rise times are usually achieved by discharging a low-inductance, high-capacitance, high-voltage capacitor (e.g. oil-filled, Mylar-foil, or ceramic) through a suitable switch (spark gap, thyratron, krytron, etc.) into the bridge wire. The ballpark figures are 5 kilovolt and 1 microfarad rating for the capacitor, and the peak current required ranges between 500 and 1000 amperes. The wire used in the bridge tends to be highly pure gold or platinum, 0.02–-0.05 mm in diameter, and 1 mm long. The high voltage may be generated using a Marx generator. Low-impedance capacitors and low-impedance coaxial cables are required to achieve the necessary current rise rate.

See pic: The silver cylinders in the case are twenty camera flashbulb capacitors, each rated at 80 microfarads. The four things that look like bullets pointing together? They ARE bullets pointing together!

You see, one of the big problems with an EBW setup is that you have to have a switch that can hold back ALL THAT CURRENT in those capacitors, but that can still connect and dump all that current really fucking fast. So this EBW setup uses a type of switch called a tigatron. Two of the bullet points (the "detonator" points) are connected to the capacitors and spaced a distance apart, such that the current can't arc across them. The other two bullets (the "switch" bullets) are closer together and set perpendicular to the detonator bullets and in the same plane. These two are connected to the contacts of a common electrical stun-gun. Sounds crazy, right? Just listen.

To fire the EBW detonator, the OPERATOR charges the capacitor bank and, when ready to fire, pulls the trigger on the stun gun. When this happens, the power from the stun gun travels to the "switch bullets", and the stun-gun current arcs across them. That ionises the air in the space between the bullet points and makes it conductive! NOW the huge blob of power in the capacitors will leap between the "detonator bullets" using this conductive pathway, flying down the wires to set off the EBW blasting cap.

This particular EBW setup was used to detonate an EBW blasting cap consisting of a 2mm length of 0.15mm nichrome wire embedded in a half-gram pellet of lightly packed pentaerythritol tetranitrate. The nichrome wire was soldered between two coaxial cable lines with a connecting block between them to keep the assembly rigid.

Due to their similar properties, you could use this same type of setup for ETN - but I'd advise upping the number of capacitors to 30 and adjusting (increasing!) the distance between the "detonator bullets" to ensure reliability. ETN takes a bit more juice to set off than PETN due to a somewhat lower electrical sensitivity.

Speaking of ETN and no-primary detonators, we'll be covering a unique phenomenon in the next post.
>> No. 3446 ID: 8c1454
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Erythritol tetranitrate is an unfortunately little-studied explosive. It has never seen commercial production, and despite being discovered by DuPont corporation back in da' day, it has never had much serious study devoted to it. One of the hallmarks that makes it so neat is the fact that more advanced study has been published on it by amateurs than by professional laboratories! And one of the discoveries is potentially very useful - it can detonate "high order" when sharply heated in the presence of aluminum.

Nobody is really sure how this phenomenon works. It was initially discovered when an amateur chemist was nearly killed several years ago attempting to cast ETN in a detonator tube by placing a small amount in the tube and gently heating it over a flame. ETN is not generally heat sensitive relative to other explosives, and its melting point is a fair bit below its temperature detonation point, so the cause of the unmelted ETN exploding in the poor fellow's face was a total mystery.

Many experimenters took up the call, and ETN was tested by heating it in contact with a variety of metals and glass. The results were totally negative, resulting only in the melting or normal burning of the ETN - with one exception. When placed on a piece of aluminum foil or sheet aluminum and heated over a flame, the ETN would begin to sublime and then immediately detonate with a violent report and sharp, shattering force - a high order detonation.

Without professional lab equipment, nobody has discovered why this is the case. Current theory is that the heat causes the rapid oxidation of the aluminum metal on the surface, and that this hot aluminum oxide reacts with the ETN somehow and starts the explosion reaction, but this is only conjecture.

Nevertheless, a useful application for this phenomenon was discovered. ETN was placed in a strongly-confining blasting cap body, and a special fuse was inserted into it. The fuse was ordinary black powder safety fuse, except it had been very tightly wrapped in a thin layer of aluminum foil. The fuse was inserted deep into the ETN, which was lightly pressed around it, the cap sealed and crimped, and the fuse lit.

As the fuse burnt down into the aluminum foil wrapper within the ETN, the aluminum became very hot, and if conditions were just right (and a little bit of luck was at hand), the ETN would detonate violently. The explosion was confined by the strong blasting cap body, greatly increasing the operating pressure, and the cap would detonate with very high power. ETN could be used all by itself as a primary explosive!

This represents the current bleeding edge of amateur detonator research. The phenomenon is so poorly understood, and the detonation conditions so specific, that nobody has managed to make a perfectly reliable detonator using this method yet. But the information is there, for those who wish to experiment.
>> No. 3467 ID: 5b9651
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So we've talked about some rules, regulations, safety, chemicals, experimental explosives, and detonators.

We're going to look now at the first "practical" explosive. Technically the second, after Nobel 808 - but we won't be getting into mass production of nitroglycerine and nitrocellulose for a few more posts yet. This is something that could be made right now with what you likely have under your bathroom counter.

>Cheddite (original)

>Cheddite is a class of explosive materials that were originally manufactured in the town of Chedde in Haute-Savoie, France in the early twentieth century. Closely related to Sprengel explosives, cheddites consisted of a high proportion of inorganic chlorates mixed with nitroaromatics (e.g. nitrobenzene or dinitrotoluene) plus a little paraffin or castor oil as a moderant for the chlorate. Several different types were made, and they were principally used in quarrying. Due to availability of ingredients and easy production process it was also the most common explosive material manufactured by the Polish Underground State in occupied Poland during World War II; it was used for production of the R wz. 42 and Filipinka hand grenades.

>Since the 1970s, Cheddite is the commercial name for an explosive compound used as an explosive primer for shotgun cartridges. It contains 90% potassium chlorate, 7% paraffin, 3% petroleum jelly, and traces of carbon black.

We will be looking at the very first, and simplest version of Cheddite - consisting of a simple blend of 90% potassium chlorate and 10% petroleum jelly by weight.

Detonation Velocity: ~4800m/s
Brisance: Low, characterizing a softer, "heaving" explosion. A "low" explosive.
Sensitivity: Moderate to highly sensitive to shock, sparks, and friction. Avoid exposure to flame. Handle with care.
Toxicity: Moderate to severe - avoid contact with eyes or skin, ingestion can be fatal.
Stability: Moderate. Once mixed, the chlorate will absorb water from the air and lose power over time. Use each batch within a couple months of producing it. Store in airtight containers.

Cheddite is made by simply measuring out nine parts by weight of pure potassium chlorate, potassium perchlorate, sodium chlorate, or sodium perchlorate, and mixing it by hand with one part by weight of pure petroleum jelly. The jelly should be spread on the bottom of a bowl, and the chlorate/perchlorate added bit by bit with the mixture kneaded together by gloved hands. Store in airtight containers in a cool, dry place.

>Okay genius, so I can buy Vaseline at the store. Butwhere the fudge do I get this "potasmium percolator" stuff at?!

It depends how safe you want to be.

There are five chemicals that can be used as the explosive foundation for a Cheddite mix. Each has small advantages, and some have harsh drawbacks.

>Sodium Chlorate - Once widely available as a weed killer, this one is the easiest to make but also the least powerful and the most hygroscopic (absorbs water from the air and becomes a dud REALLY quickly). Sodium Chlorate can be isolated by placing common, unscented, household Bleach in a beaker and boiling it all the way down until it turns to a mass of white crystals - these are modestly pure sodium chlorate. It can also be made from saltwater on an industrial scale by an electrolysis process.

See these for details:

>Potassium Chlorate - This one is only slightly harder to make than Sodium Chlorate, but is both less sensitive to friction and doesn't absorb water from the air nearly as bad. This one is probably the most ideal for the small-scale OPERATION. See the two links above - making this is the same process as Sodium Chlorate but with one extra step added at the end.

>Sodium and Potassium Perchlorate - These would be ideal if they weren't a bitch to make. Perchlorates are made by stretching out the electrolysis method and using a very specific voltage range at the electrodes until all the chloride is converted. Perchlorates are the most stable and safe of the compounds, with power similar to potassium chlorate.

>Potassium Permanganate - This one is the most powerful and the easiest to use, but also the most dangerous by far. You can actually buy this OTC in pure form from most large hardware stores like Home Depot. It is used in the treatment of household water systems like water softeners and pool filters. Permanganate is very volatile in the presence of fuels - many are familiar with mixing a tiny bit of it with glycerine to start a fire. When mixed with petroleum jelly it makes a very powerful Cheddite, but a very unstable one that may spontaneously ignite if jostled, heated, or left with any trace of contamination. It is quite unpredictable and so not recommended.

Cheddite is a blasting-type explosive with a forceful "shoving" sort of detonation that is useless for shattering steel or puncturing armor, but is an excellent general purpose bulk explosive for blasting, mining, demolition, or certain weapons that don't require high brisance. It is fairly easy to detonate with a standard blasting cap, usually not requiring a booster, and explodes with a VERY high temperature blast - making it good at setting fires.

The IRA were huge fans of a "Sprengel Explosive" - a liquid-fuelled cousin to Cheddite, made by mixing 9 parts by weight of finely powdered Potassium Chlorate (specifically! No substitutes!) with 1 part by weight of Kerosene in a large stainless steel mixing bowl and kneading it together with gloved hands. It was packed tightly and stored in sealed, airtight containers for use as IEDs.
>> No. 3490 ID: 763111
A nice PETN synthesis

>> No. 3491 ID: 763111

and a shitload more


Really great website FYI
>> No. 3496 ID: 8c1454

Actually, yeah. Powerlab's site is pretty good stuff for the amateur energetics chemist. I use him as ONE of my sources.

Remember, LEARN WHAT IS GOING ON IN THE REACTION - don't just follow guides.
>> No. 3586 ID: 72f6a5
So I've got what might be a bit of a dumb question, but what exactly does powdered aluminium do chemically? From what I understand it strengthens reactions but why?
>> No. 3587 ID: 5b9651

Aluminum, or more correctly aluminum oxide since pretty much all aluminum is oxidized at the surface, can burn like a motherfucker if it is finely powdered and the explosion has enough oxygen. It burns violently, releasing a large amount of energy over a relatively long period of time.

Basically any type of finely powdered, oxidized metal can be used as a special additive FUEL. Aluminum is popular because its cheap and easy to come by, but magnesium works even better. The metal powder changes some of the "shock" of the explosion into a slower, hotter, "heaving" action. Most large scale thermobaric weapons use a large quantity of powdered metal around the core, causing it to burn in air and create a massively powerful wave of heat and pressure when set off in an enclosed space.
>> No. 3592 ID: 8c1454
File 136591698339.jpg - (41.22KB , 700x525 , large_Single%20Nitrator%202.jpg )
I should also mention the reason why you often see aluminum powder used alongside ammonium nitrate, as in Tannerite. Ammonium nitrate has a significant positive oxygen balance - meaning it releases more oxygen than it needs to combust itself, leaving some left over. The aluminum is added up to a limit of about 6% by weight, and will use this extra oxygen to ignite itself, burning up in the explosion of the ammonium nitrate and increasing the power of the blast. The presence of the aluminum also makes the mixture more sensitive to friction - the friction generated by a rifle bullet passing into Tannerite is enough to "flash ignite" some of the aluminum - which in turn releases enough energy to start the explosion reaction in the AN, which in turn ignites the rest of the aluminum.

Next we're going to discuss one of the key pieces of industrial equipment used for mass manufacturing explosives: The Nitrator.

Remember the rules of nitration reactions:


>The material to be nitrated.
>Nitric Acid to perform the nitration.
>Sulfuric acid to absorb the water produced by the reaction


>Carefully measured combination rate for the ingredients.
>Vigorous stirring.
>Very strict temperature control.

A Nitrator is essentially a big mixing bowl, fitting with acid-proof equipment for creating those conditions. In the simplest for it consists of:

>A large stainless steel or glass vessel, the "pot."
>A series of glass or stainless steel inlet tubes with precision valves for adding the ingredients from their storage carboys.
>A stainless steel or acid-resistant plastic stirring head driven by a non-sparking electric motor.
>A coil of glass or flexible stainless tubing inside the "pot" through which cold water can be circulated to precisely control the temperature.
>A series of thermometers to measure different points in the reaction for "hot spots", with an automatic control that will increase the cooling rate of the coil system to compensate.
>An acid proof drain at the bottom for removing the finished material for processing.

When the system is turned on, it will fill with the ingredients in the prescribed order - usually sulfuric > nitric > material for liquid materials. The stirring head will OPERATE continuously to keep the mixture agitated, and the cooling coil will maintain the desired temperature as the material to be nitrated is poured into the acid at a precise rate determined by its flow valve.

With a robust cooling system keeping the temperature stable, the material can be added quite a bit more quickly and the whole reaction performed on a much larger scale than in our little ice-bath lab experiments. A nitrator using a 3 gallon stainless steel stock pot for a vessel could, for instance, produce fully a gallon of crude nitroglycerine in an afternoon. With 4 or 5 such nitrators running, and a small staff performing the washing and neutralization steps using large glass jugs, a small lab with a handful of volunteers could produce 5 gallons of ready-to-use nitroglycerine a day.

The significant amount of spent acids would be used on site for the production of mono-nitro-toluene in another nitrator, and nitrocellulose can be produced in large batches by simply scaling up the lab reaction - a nitrator instead of a beaker - a bale of cotton cloth instead of a cotton ball. At the end of the day, the three ingredients could be combined to create upwards of six to eight gallons of Nobel 808 plastic explosive a day.

All from a lab that could be staffed by ten volunteers and fit in a small outbuilding.

Imagine ten such labs OPERATING in the countryside in one little county.
>> No. 3598 ID: 28e84c
I guess liquids are a no-go then. Bummer.
>> No. 3601 ID: 8c1454
File 136600190264.gif - (20.83KB , 551x589 , nitrator diagram.gif )
Nope. I turned up several liquid explosives, but nothing that would be remotely useful in a firearm. lolexplodinggunbarrels.

The following information on nitrators and nitrations comes from Urbanski, Volume 1.

>There are three methods of mixing organic substances to be nitrated with nitrating mixtures:
(1) adding the substance to the acid,
(2) adding the acid to the substance,
(3) simultaneous introduction of both acid and organic substance into
the nitrator.

The first method is the one most frequently applied. It has, however, certain drawbacks. The first portions of the nitrated substance are introduced into an excess of nitrating mixture and may be converted to a higher degree of nitration than required and may also undergo oxidation processes; hence the uniformity of the product may not be satisfactory. Also some substances sensitive to concentrated
acid may be decomposed by contact with an excess of acid necessitating
application of the second method. In the second method the substance to be nitrated is contacted with an inadequate quantity of nitrating acid. This might be advantageous for the reason mentioned above. However, when aromatic hydrocarbons with alkyl side groups (e.g. toluene) are nitrated, reaction of the hydrocarbon with an inadequate amount of nitrating mixture may lead to the formation of dark coloured complex compounds and even tarry matter (see p. 77). In this instance the first method is more advantageous. The best method, which consists
in simultaneous introduction of both reactants into the nitrator, has the advantage that it is applicable in continuous nitration processes.
As already mentioned earlier, nitration proceeds mainly in the acid phase. Strictly speaking the acid phase consists of an acid saturated with an organic substance. On the other hand, the organic phase is in turn saturated with an acid.

The reaction rate in an acid phase is much higher than that in an organic phase (see p. 40). By vigorous stirring the contents of the nitrator are kept emulsified and the phases are kept mutually saturated due to diffusion over a very large interfacial area. Insufficient mixing may easily result in a low nitration rate owing to the small
interfacial area. It can also lead to a non-uniform nitration process. Owing to inadequate construction of the stirrer, too low a speed of rotation, or an interruption in stirring, so-called dead spaces may easily be formed in which non nitrated or not fully nitrated substances accumulate. If a rather large quantity of the mixture is stirred suddenly, rapid extension of the interfacial area takes place,
followed by the generation of large amounts of heat and a rise in temperature. This may cause a spontaneous decomposition of the reaction mass in the nitrator, and then an explosion. Such an accident, well known in the history of the chemical industry, happened at the Rummelsburg factory in 1914 during the nitration of benzene. The transmission belt slipped off and caused the stirrer to stop. In spite of this benzene continued to flow into the nitrator. When the fault was noticed, the stirrer was set in motion by putting the belt in the right place, with the result that an explosion followed (see also p. 446).

Stirring should be particularly vigorous at the beginning of nitration when the reaction is most violent and the largest amount of heat is evolved. There is a further reason which makes very fast stirring necessary at the beginning, namely the fact that the two liquid phases-that of a light substance being nitrated and that of the heavy nitrating acid-differ considerably in specific weight. As the reaction goes on, and the organic phase is nitrated, its specific weight increases while that of the acid decreases because of its dilution. Toward the end of nitration, the difference between specific weights having been much reduced, mixing of the two phases is greatly facilitated.

A few workers have investigated recently the problem of the influence of stirring on the rate of nitration and the yield of the reaction. McKinly and White [7] reported that the rate of nitration of toluene to nitrotoluene increased by 3% only when the stirring speed was increased from 1327 to 2004 r.p.m. However, much larger increases (4 to 5 times higher) were obtained in the same reaction by Barduhn and Kobe [8] when they changed the stirring rate from 1000 to 2175 r.p.m.
>> No. 3727 ID: 8c1454
  Oh fuck yeah.

Here is an EXCELLENT video of a simplified (neutral ph, omitting the hydroxide) lead azide synthesis.

Seriously, if you can get the components this is the only detonator material you should ever use. Its so safe relative to everything else that you'd be stupid not to.
>> No. 3876 ID: 8c1454
File 136833804732.jpg - (25.06KB , 320x240 , hg8.jpg )
Mercury Fulminate

I was a little iffy on including this section, only because I was OPERATING under the mistaken belief that mercury metal had become unavailable.

It has not.


As you'll see though - it HAS become quite expensive at $80 a vial. Still...

Mercury fulminate is one of the oldest primary explosives known. It has been used for everything from commercial blasting caps and caplock musket caps to WW2 era artillery shell fuzes. In fact, Lead Azide replaced it as the Primary Explosive of choice only about 20 years ago. Why so popular? STUPID EASY TO MAKE.

Mercury fulminate requires only three ingredients:

>Mercury metal
>Medium concentrated Nitric Acid (60-70% is adequate for this, so you can use the weaker acids we talked about in the nitric acid section, and not waste the Good Stuff(tm).
>Pure Ethanol alcohol (Everclear)

The downside is that it must be made in small amounts. A GRAM OR LESS PER BATCH. The reason is because the reaction temperature is VERY unstable. Fulminate is one of the easiest reactions to go into "runaway" and blow your effing face off. You make small amounts because you can control it more effectively.

On to the synthesis:

>IN A WELL VENTILATED AREA - 10mL of 65% nitric acid are carefully measured into a 50mL beaker, onto which 1.1 grams of mercury are very gently added with a pipette. A vigorous reaction should start, during which large amounts of HIGHLY TOXIC Nitrogen Dioxide gas is released. This reddish/Brown gas is lethal as well as being a very powerful oxidizer.

>If the reaction between the acid and the mercury does not start immediately, the solution should be heated gently in a water bath, NEVER EXCEEDING 70C!

>Once the reaction is complete a greenish liquid layer (mercury nitrate) will form in the bottom of the beaker. Let this liquid stand until it reaches room temperature, and the reddish nitrogen dioxide fumes have died down (an hour or so, generally)

>15ml of pure ethanol are added to a 100ml flask and gently warmed to 50C. The heat is turned off, and the room temperature mercury nitrate solution is VERY CAREFULLY added, a bit at a time, to the warm ethanol.

>Swirl it gently for a moment and allow this new solution to sit, and a violent reaction will begin to take place after a few minutes. There will be lots of foaming and frothing and EXTREMELY DEADLY WHITE GAS GIVEN OFF. Remember to do this outside or right under an open window - and mind those white fumes, as they are also flammable as all hell.

>After ten minutes of scary reaction, the frothing and gas will begin to lessen, and you will see small crystals of crude mercury fulminate forming in the bottom of the flask. Allow the reaction to finish on its own.

>Once the reaction has settled down fully, pour the solution through filter paper and wash the collected crystals with first 20ml of ethanol, then 50ml or so of distilled water, and then 20ml of ethanol again. Transfer the crystals to a clean filter and wash them with an additional 20ml of distilled water and 15 ml of ethanol.

>Set the crystals aside to dry. They will tend to be slightly off-color, usually greyish tinted, because of natural impurities in the mercury metal. This is normal, and not really worth the hassle of removing (a process requiring concentrated ammonium hydroxide and pure ascetic acid).

The finished result is about 2 grams of usable mercury fulminate. It is VERY sensitive to friction, sparks, and heat - though not as bad as HMTD or lead picrate. Do not scrape it, bump it, heat it, or jar it and it will be fairly safe to handle. USE ANTI STATIC SPRAY BEFORE HANDLING IT! ALWAYS! One gram of it is sufficient primary explosive for the initiation layer of a blasting cap, or two grams of it in a cap can set off most bulk explosives on its own, without a secondary - though this is NOT recommended due to the sensitive nature of so much of it in one place.
>> No. 3877 ID: 043a6b

What are the chances of Mercury Fulminate Gunpowder described there actually working as a gunpowder substitute?
>> No. 3878 ID: 5b9651

It would probably work, after a fashion. There were lots of alternative gunpowder types tried during WW1 and WW2, like ammonopulver and some HE-based powders. Many had issues with occasionally kabooming guns just because the particles settled wrong or the mix had air bubbles left in it etc. Too many variables to really make it work safely.

The most effective alternative is probably the so-called "red powder" gunpowder made by mixing potassium nitrate, sugar, and iron oxide. This one was mastered by philipino rebels fighting the Japanese occupation. I think the Improvised Munitions Handbook has the recipe.
>> No. 3885 ID: 5b9651
File 136847826866.jpg - (95.50KB , 576x360 , Nitro%20Combustion%20sign.jpg )
So I've been doing some research. We've covered a number of the original explosives that most people think of when they hear the word. But I am ever on the lookout for something: The ideal explosive.

What is Acid Man's "ideal explosive" you ask?

>Must be readily made from common ingredients, preferably without chemical reactions.
>Must be powerful enough for applications requiring high brisance, like steel cutting or shaped charges.
>Must be plastic and mouldable.
>Must be reasonably safe to store, transport, use, and handle.

Now here we are, a year later, and I think I may have finally found it. The finished product would need VoD testing done on it to verify my calculations, but it should be somewhere in the vicinity of 6000m/s. This explosive doesn't have a name, but the basic idea was passed to me by an EODfriend whom I trust, and I verified it academically and made some modifications.

I think I might call it OPEX

>OPerator EXplosive


99% Pure Nitromethane
>obtainable here: http://www.motorsportsracingfuels.net/index.php?categoryID=83

50% Ammonium Hydroxide solution (50% concentrated ammonia)
>obtainable here: http://www.chemworld.com/Ammonium-Hydroxide-50-p/ah1082-q.htm

and Fumed Silica Dioxide powder
>obtainable here: http://www.aeromarineproducts.com/?gclid=CPTQt4Hyk7cCFcbb4Aod5BUAoQ

Measure out all percentages BY WEIGHT!

>To 90 parts of pure nitromethane, add 12 parts of 50% ammonium hydroxide to an HDPE plastic jug, allowing some leftover volume inside. Swirl the liquids together (be wary of fumes!), and then cap the jug and shake the mixture hard for three or four minutes.

>The ammonium hydroxide will have a mild reaction with the nitromethane, forming modest amounts of a salt called ammonium nitromethanalate. This salt, dissolved in the nitromethane by shaking it, makes the body of liquid sensitive enough to detonate from a blasting cap.

>Transfer the finished solution to a large beaker or HDPE plastic pail, allowing it to cool to room temperature.

>To this FINAL SOLUTION add 4 parts by weight of the fumed silica, a little at a time, and stir the mixture vigorously. Fumed silica is a very powerful thickening agent that does not react with nitromethane. 4 parts by weight will turn the solution into a thick, viscous gel with the stiffness of wet clay. Stir it hard for ten minutes, to make sure the nitromethane and nitromethanalate salt are even dissolved amongst the gel.

The end result is a thick, sticky blob of very powerful explosive. The NM/Ammonia combination at straight 6% solution has 24% more power than straight TNT, and is about as easy to detonate. By adding the gelling agent we reduce the density somewhat, so power should be predictably somewhere NEAR that of straight TNT or just slightly below. Still PLENTY powerful.

In addition, the material is storage stable for several months. Is relatively safe to handle - it is toxic but not extremely so. Wear gloves and eyepro when handling it raw and don't huff the fumes and you're A-okay. It is insensitive - not much LESS than a blasting cap will set it off. You can smack it around all day, just don't let it get hot (200+F). It is soft and pliable but thick enough to retain its shape. And you can make it out of three very lightly restricted materials. They'd all be OTC if any stores had enough demand to stock them.

Oh, and I should also mention that the batch scales up, almost without limit. You can make it anywhere from a 15ml beaker to a 55 gallon drum at a time. If you're doing a big batch, chill the ammonia in the freezer for a while before mixing and shaking, and then shake longer and let sit an hour with an open bunghole (fumes) before adding the gelling agent.

>Opchan Cake Works. We give knowledge, not fucks.
>> No. 3886 ID: a468a6
I remember reading that fulminated mercury is pretty corrosive stuff, somebody correct me if I'm wrong.
>> No. 3887 ID: 26e57c
File 136849559745.png - (905.60KB , 801x623 , monkey smile.png )
That's pretty neat. It also sounds like something that someone could set up a roughly automated process for, for safety and convenience.

Oh you.
>> No. 3892 ID: 8c1454
File 136859432828.jpg - (180.15KB , 597x733 , Mayer%20R-salt%20preparation%20%20JCS_JPG.jpg )
Alright, I feel enough confidence in this procedure to finally post it. Tonight we're going to be looking at an explosive with some SERIOUS horsepower. Like all awesomely destructive ideas, it was pioneered by ZEE GNATZEES during Dubya Dubya Too, though they never made much use of it for a reason I'll explain shortly. It is also the real reason I've had you stockpiling Hexamine.

This substance is called R-Salts.

As you're probably aware from previous discussions both in this thread and the EFP thread, most American explosives are based around RDX - a tough to make, expensive little white crystal with extremely high brisance and top-notch detonation velocity - on the order of nearly 8000m/s. It is our go-to explosive for everything, especially the ubiquitous C-4 plastic explosive.

As alluring as RDX is, we can't waste time looking at it too hard. The reason for this is because there are two ways to make it - an attainable one whose yields are so pathetic it isn't worth the effort, and a good one that requires ingredients that are now kept under VERY tight lock and key by the DEA. Like it or not, RDX is realistically out of our reach. But like the desirable pretty girl at the dance that the head Jock is fucking, she has a pretty cute sister that we might be able to get in the sack. That would be R-Salts. AKA cyclotrimethylene trinitrosamine, and yes I typed that from memory. Before we get into it, a word of warning: Pay attention to the last part of the name: nitrosamine. Nitrosamines are the stuff in cigarettes that gives you cancer. They are ABSURDLY carcinogenic and destructive to your DNA. If you handle R-Salts barehanded for an hour, you'll absorb enough through your skin to about equal smoking a hundred cartons of Camels. Camel Menthols. Because of how black you are. Combine that risk with the fact that the yields for R-salts are pretty small (about 50%, meaning you get half as much R-salts as you use in materials - this is not ungodly bad, but still kinda sucky) is why the Germans never put it to serious use. But we're OPERATORs and we just don't give a fuck.

Hexamine tablets
Hydrochloric acid
Sodium NITRITE. That's not a typo - you want nitrIte, not nitrAte.
Distilled water
Neutralizing solution
Baking soda

Process the hexamine first by removing the wax binder that holds the tablets together. Crush them VERY FINE in a mortar and pestle, and dissolve the resulting powder in a small amount of very hot distilled water. Stir briskly for fifteen minutes and then filter the water twice. The crap on the filters is the binder - throw it away. Let the water stand and evaporate and pure hexamine crystals will be left behind. You might as well do this in BIG batches, since you'll need to do it for anything you ever use hexamine for anyway. Just make you a gallon jar of the pure crystals and be done with it.

>Make a solution consisting of 7g of pure hexamine in 25ml of water in a large beaker. Heat the water, add the hexamine, and stir to dissolve. Place the solution in the freezer and chill it to 0C, stirring occasionally.

>Make a 3% solution of hydrochloric acid by carefully adding your available concentration to an appropriate amount of distilled water and stirring. Place 60ml of this solution in the freezer and chill it to 0C. Ideally you want a solution of PH-1, but R-Salts will actually be eaten by the acid if you make the solution too strong. You also want a total proportion somewhere around 1:6:4.3 of hexamine, acid, and nitrite, respectively.

>Dissolve 10.5 grams of pure sodium NITRITE in a small amount of distilled water - just enough to completely dissolve, and place it into the freezer and chill to 0C.

>Prepare an ice bath for the combining step, and set aside a large glass bowl for collection of the R-salts.

>Remove the hydrochloric acid and sodium nitrite solutions from the freezer and CAREFULLY combine them. Stir this mixture gently and place it in the ice bath, chilling it again to 0C. This results in a pretty blue solution of nitrouS acid.

>Remove the hexamine solution from the freezer and place it in the ice bath as well.

>Now gently pour the nitrous acid solution into the flask of hexamine solution, stir for a moment, and step back and watch.

>The reaction will begin to bubble after a few minutes, eventually percolating up a roaring column of foam that may threaten to overflow your beaker! That foam roaring out is actually the explosive, mind you.

You now have two ways to handle the situation:

A: Once new foam stops bubbling up you can scoop it all off the top of the reaction liquid with a large plastic spoon or THICKLY GLOVED hands, and set it aside in the large glass bowl to settle down into crystals. You get a better yield this way, because you don't have any acid from the liquid eating at your crystals as they settle down.

or B: Let the reaction subside until it has all settled down to liquid again, then quickly filter the crystals out of the liquid and wash and neutralize them. This is easier and a little less risky, but you're going to lose some R-salts to that acid while you're waiting for the foam to break down.

Either way, once you have the crude crystals from the foam collected, place them on a filter and wash them with 75ml of distilled water, then 50ml of 5% baking soda solution, and finally a further 75ml of distilled water.

To purify the R-salts, dissolve the crystals in 25ml of warm (40C) acetone, and then add 1 gram of baking soda to the solution and stir for 3 to 5 minutes. Filter the acetone solution, then crash it into 125ml of ice cold water to precipitate the pure crystals. Filter them out again and spread them on a ceramic plate in a warm, dry spot to dry. The result is about 2-3 grams of silky yellow crystals of pure R-salts explosive. Do not handle it with bare hands unless you want to die.

The process for making this stuff scales, by the way. It is one of the few that really do. Temperature control becomes harder for big batches, but making a half-pound at a time is certainly doable if you plan it out correctly and construct a proper cooling apparatus.
>> No. 3893 ID: 8c1454
File 136859986338.jpg - (10.65KB , 180x265 , nc11951n.jpg )
Sodium nitrite can be purchased, unrestricted, from most places that carry meat curing chemicals.


You can also make it yourself using lead as a catalyst, but its easier just to buy it.

You can also MAKE hexamine, if you so choose, by combining formalin and that wonderful 50% ammonia from the earlier synth. I'll probably get into that later. If you want R-Salts in bulk, you'd be smart to make your own hexamine in bulk first. Its very easy, but probably a little suspicious looking.
>> No. 3894 ID: c99a8e
make a "special" driving tactics thread after this thread is finished pls
>> No. 3897 ID: 5b9651
File 136864785116.jpg - (31.42KB , 423x310 , explosives3.jpg )
If you've been paying attention, ever since we talked about ETN way back in the thread, you've probably been wondering something important: How do we actually USE these granular crystal explosives? It would be kinda hard, afterall, to pack table sugar into a usable shape, and that's about the consistency of most of these crystals.

The answer is that we coat them with a desensitizing binder. This is called the "Water Slurry" method and was originally pioneered by the British in WW2 for desensitizing RDX for use in detonators.

It works like this:

>A large water bath is heated to 90 degrees Fahrenheit. A large beaker containing distilled water is heated in the bath until the water reaches 90F.

>The crystalline explosive is added to the water and stirred to keep it in suspension - NOT to dissolve it. If the crystals start to dissolve, reduce the water temperature. You just want a big old cloud of crystals swirling around.

>In a large pan, melt an amount of paraffin wax equal to between 1% and 9% by weight of the explosive. The higher the percentage, the safer but weaker the final explosive mix will be. Weapons-grade RDX used in munitions is typically 5% wax by weight, as one example.

>While VERY briskly stirring the suspended cloud of explosive crystals (use an electric mixer for best results), pour the melted wax directly into the explosive/water slurry.

>Stir the slurry for a half an hour, then turn off the heating element and allow the mixture to cool to room temperature AS YOU CONTINUE STIRRING.

>Discontinue stirring once the slurry has cooled, and pour it through a filter. The explosive crystals should all be neatly coated in a thin layer of the wax.

These coated crystals can now be pressed into charges, detonators, boosters, etc and are much safer to handle.

A 95% R-salts, 5% paraffin mix would be almost equivalent to the original "high performance" shaped charge explosive once used by the US Army for booster pellets and small, powerful shaped charges.
>> No. 3899 ID: 5b9651
Okay, what the fuck. I've tried to post this four times and my browser keeps crashing as I get taken to "operatorchan.org/php."

Lets see if it works after restarting.


You may need to use a higher water temperature if your particular wax has a different melting point. Some paraffin melts at 100F, so you'd want somewhere around 105-110F for the slurry temperature.

>In the simplest process, the particles are coated in hot water. The explosive (RDX, for example) is vigorously stirred in water and heated slightly above the melting point of the
wax, which is introduced and dispersed on the particles. The mixture is cooled by the rapid introduction of cold water, without formation of crusts on the vessel walls. The suspension is filtered and dried.

Source is here, courtesy of Nobel Explosive's Paris France division:


And that procedure was aggrivatingly hard to find. They apparently don't want people knowing how the emulsion process worked, even back in the 40s. Fuck their shit, I say! This post supersedes the previous one.
>> No. 3914 ID: 5b9651
File 136880991360.jpg - (58.13KB , 375x500 , 182%20SIL%20ELAST%20KIT%20-5KG.jpg )
Plastic Bonded Explosives, or PBX for short, are among the most advanced formulations of explosives used today. In essence, a PBX is a crystalline explosive like RDX, R-Salts, PETN or ETN suspended in a rigid plastic matrix. It's basically a solid block of hard plastic that goes boom. Many of these are highly sophisticated both in terms of chemistry and physical manufacturing - requiring unusual chemical solvents or speciality curing materials.

Fortunately for us, there are also a couple that don't.

There is a particular silicone resin that is especially good for explosives use. It is made by Dow Corning and sold under the name Sylgard 182.


It is a fully inert compound, meaning you can use it with nearly any crystalline explosive without fear of dangerous side reaction. To give you an idea of its usefulness, the US military uses it in implosion-type nuclear weapons.

From "Lasl Explosive Property Data" by T.R. Gibbs concerning PBX explosives "XTX-8003 and XTX-8004"

Parts by weight:

RDX or PETN Explosive (or ETN or R-Salts for our purposes): 80
Sylgard 182: 20


>Sylgard 182 resin and its curing agent are mixed with {the explosive} in a high shear vertical mixer to the consistency of wet sea sand. The material is passed through a three roll differential paint mill until it is the consistency of glazier's putty. After mixing, XTX has a shelf life of 24h at 25C. When it is to be used, XTX is extruded into moulds or forms of the desired configuration. Final curing or polymerization is achieved by exposure to 65C for 8-12hrs.

For small batch production, a high-speed rotating bowl type kitchen mixer with TWO heads (a beater and a mixer specifically), like pic related can do an adequate job for mixing. Get a big model with a powerful motor, you need a little torque on this one - and mix for at least 2 hours. Note that a normal mixer won't work for explosives - it doesn't break up the particles enough. Either use the multihead rotating bowl or spring for a proper high shear mixer, or you're just wasting materials.

The paint rolling mill can be substituted as well, though for a lot more work. A teflon-coated rolling pin can be opened up and the insides filled with lead shot (or just push really hard) and roll the putty material flat on waxed paper. Fold it over and roll again. Fold it over a couple times and roll again. Press hard to crush up those explosive crystals and get a good, uniform dispersion. Repeat the folding and rolling ten times or so until you have a nice, putty consistency.

The final step is to get out any remaining air bubbles. Press the mass of explosive down into a mixing bowl and vibrate it. You can do this a couple ways. You could stick a trio of aluminum dildos into one corner of the bowl, crank them to maximum, and leave it for an hour (the /k/ way). Or more professionally, you can set the stuff on a ceramicist's vibrating stand:


Those are used to vibrate air bubbles out of dental castings - for exactly the same reasons we want them out of our explosive mix.

Carefully pack the finish putty as desired (make sure you don't introduce any new air pockets!), like say the cavity space of a shaped charge, and use a manual press to smush it down (add 20% of the explosive, press, 20% more, press, 20% more, press etc. Don't do it all at once) to something near 1000psi. the maximum density of this explosive is around 1.5g/cc, so get as close to that as you can.

Once the explosive has been added, formed, vibrated, and any excess trimmed, it is ready for curing. Place it in an oven at 60C for 8-12 hours. and cool it to room temperature. Inspect it for any cracks or voids, and if it passes you now have a professional quality PBX explosive, equal to anything the Russians have ever used.
>> No. 3915 ID: 5b9651
File 136882114672.jpg - (34.39KB , 320x320 , octogen.jpg )
The secret to raw power of a crystalline explosive is density and uniformity. You need to pack as much of that energetic stuff in there as possible, as tightly as possible, with as few speedbumps as possible.

It follows then, that to pack more crystals of explosive together, those crystals need to be made smaller. Smaller crystals are also under less internal stress and thus also are less sensitive to accidental detonation. Small = good. This process of shrinking crystals can occasionally be done chemically, as we did with the use of a tiny bit of dextrin in our lead azide solution - but it is more regularly accomplished manually.

Ideally you're going to want two sizes of crystals. A small and a very small (think table sugar and talcum powder, respectively). This is called a "bimodal" crystal mixture - the small crystals fill the gaps between the larger, more sensitive crystals for a good, homogeneous mix with potentially very high density. Or for more simplicity, simply screen all the crystals to be the same size for a guarantee of uniform performance, although at very slightly lower density and power.

The best way for reducing crystal sizes on a small scale is to crush and sift them. Set aside two sifting screens, one a bit smaller than the other. Spread a VERY THIN layer of your raw explosive out on a hard, flat surface like a polished stone tabletop, and go to work on it SLOWLY and CAREFULLY with a teflon-coated rolling pin. Don't push super hard, just push gently and roll a couple passes over the layer of explosives.

After a few passes, scrape the explosives up with a non-sparking, non-static tool and run them through the sifting screen/s. Collect each desired size in separate containers and continue rolling anything that is too big.

If using the bimodal method, combine your 2 sifted crystal sizes back together in 2:1 small:large ratio when doing the wax phlegmatization or PBX processes, and the density can now be made even tighter, and the explosive all the more powerful.
>> No. 3931 ID: e32840
Hey, Acid Man..

I used to be interested in explosives for "Fun".
As a kid I would lump together different fireworks and based off of their properties, make assumptions and analysis based off of my limited knowledge and a light box microscope, pH paper, and a stack of old bricks to blow up.

My friend is a HAZWOPER/Civilian EOD. She has been telling me all of these cool stories of making and dissembling explosives.
She said the school was 10k, but worth it after your second job.

What do you do professionally that gave you all of this useful information?
>> No. 3942 ID: 5b9651
File 13691482633.jpg - (14.97KB , 300x230 , wpseriesa.jpg )

I get around. 'nuff said.


Two quick points to add to our PBX recipe here:

>It cures at 65C not 60C. Sometimes I wish the board had an edit function.

>Its detonation velocity is a quite brisk 7350m/s with RDX explosive, so with R-Salts or ETN we should expect something in that 7000+ range.
>> No. 3950 ID: 5b9651
File 136923760745.jpg - (32.72KB , 451x468 , 2OFT5UJ51hexamine_bigger.jpg )
If you want to make a whole bunch of R-Salts (and you will) then it would be a beneficial idea to mass-manufacture the main ingredient, Hexamine, on its own as a precursor step.

Hexamine is created by the reaction of Ammonia and Formaldehyde.

With some of that wonderful 50% concentrated ammonia solution, this is VERY easy to make.

Due to the use of it in several drug synths, Formaldehyde is quite hard to come by unrestricted these days. But believe it or not, you can still find it off the shelf in 37% strength for treating fish aquariums. This solution is called Formalin, and you can get it here:


the reaction is very very simple.

>Prepare an ice bath (or a vat with a cooling coil)

>In a large beaker (double the volume of your total fluids) in a well ventilated place, pour 1 part by volume of 37% formaldehyde solution. Place this beaker in the ice bath and chill until cold to the touch.

>Slowly and very carefully begin adding 2 parts by volume of the ammonia solution to the chilled beaker of formaldehyde, stirring gently until all is added and stirred together. Each time you add ammonia the temperature will shoot up! The liquid may IGNITE if you add it too quickly! GO SLOW.

>When all the ammonia has been added and the reaction settled down, stir the mixture at a moderate pace for 2 or three minutes. When it has again settled down, let it stand overnight and stir it again in the morning. Let it stand an additional 12 hours. The liquid should be almost completely clear.

>Place the beaker on a hotplate and GENTLY heat it, with stirring, to 90C. and let it steam. It will give off a pungent odor of formaldehyde and stink everything up, but you need to evaporate all the liquid.

>When all of the liquid (mostly water) is evaporated off, you will be left with a cake of wet hexamine crystals in the bottom of the beaker. You can dissolve these again in hot distilled water and recrystallize by evaporation to obtain pure hexamine.

You can also make your own ammonia, if you like. CAREFLLY set up a glass vessel (gallon jug with rubber stopper) containing powdered ammonium sulfate (fertilizer, available pure and unrestricted for cheap) and common household powdered lye (sodium hydroxide) in a 1:2 sulphate/hydroxide ratio. Lead a plastic hose from the sealed mouth of this jug to the very bottom of a three foot section of 2.5" PVC pipe that is capped at the bottom, open at the top, and standing vertically. Fill the pipe with either distilled water or weak household ammonia, squirt a shot (2-3ml) of water into the jug with the sulphate/hydroxide mix to jumpstart a rather violent reaction (BE CAREFUL when initially adding them, as they may react some without the water as well!), strongly insert the stopper with the hose, and stand back.

The sulphate/lye reaction gives off pure ammonia gas, which is forced down the plastic tube and bubbled through the long PVC column of water or ammonia. The gas is absorbed into the liquid in the column, increasing its ammonia concentration.
>> No. 3952 ID: 6efaef

Please tell me you aren't actually from the Jacksonville, FL FBI Division...
>> No. 3953 ID: 5adb5b
Is that where his IP is from?
>> No. 3954 ID: 258c8f

Even if it's not true, don't ever let me know. The thought of this is so damned funny, I just want to hold onto it forever. Like a fluffy cuddly little bunny, I never want to let it go.
>> No. 3970 ID: d444df

There's only one result when I google that ID.

Could you not be more obvious.

Get bent, Federale.
>> No. 3973 ID: 4fae17
File 13693754922.jpg - (653.59KB , 1909x2872 , 1369134016973.jpg )
FBI Please Go.
>> No. 3976 ID: b6db4c
File 136939068049.jpg - (330.25KB , 520x2765 , FBI_1.jpg )
Nice try Michael Steinbach,
Maybe next time
>> No. 3977 ID: a2cc67

Not a fed. But the paranoia is strong here. It seems he is doing nothing illegal so i doubt he would be targeted.

It was a legit question as i do find this stuff interesting. If i had my own property i would as an adult, fill out all the proper paperwork, storage, etc.
But i dont. My interest in this stuff is a strange facination as when i was a kid, i did get in trouble for burning up my back yard. The purpose of this thread is to be informative and it has been.

But if you dont use this information professionally. What then do you use it for? Blowing up bricks in your back yard? Stump removal? Get real. It does question motives for use of this information when someone asks "why do you use this information?" "What circumstances would a non professional use this information?" Acid Man did ask why nobody is asking any questions...so i decided to. Sorry to un nerve you or sound like a fed. I'll stop postung and go back to lurking.

Ha. The funny thing is I do pass the local FBI office every day on my way to work.
>> No. 3978 ID: 6b069a
File 136940799786.jpg - (7.61KB , 400x300 , UGM-1306184679-U654.jpg )

That's exactly what a fed would say....
>> No. 3987 ID: 5b9651
File 136944013486.jpg - (105.41KB , 512x783 , 1352803837119.jpg )

>What do you NEED that gun assault weapon knowledge for?!
>Implying the circumlocutory concept of "Assault Knowledge"
>Implying I need to be using it for anything to have an absolute right to possess and discuss it amongst my brethren for any reason I please or no reason at all.
>> No. 3998 ID: 5b9651
File 136949532866.gif - (15.35KB , 275x281 , krummel6.gif )
On the subject of Nitromethane Gels - I uploaded a patent from the 1950s here:


It describes in detail how nitrocellulose can actually be used to gel nitromethane. This may have some advantages over our fumed silica dioxide since the binder is now explosive also. The downside is that you need quite a bit more of it to make a thick, usable gel. 4-6% for fumed silica and 20-30% for nitrocellulose. It would take some testing to determine which actually ends up more powerful.

The ultimate goal would be to make an OPEX variant that could be pour-moulded into a shaped charge. That would save ALL the trouble of vibrating, rolling, crystal crushing and all the other hard labor steps involved in using a crystalline explosive.

>Fill shaped charge with nitromethane
>Add sensitizer(s) and gelling agent
>Insert stirring rod and stir
>Let set

Presto. Instant shaped charge, just add detonator.
>> No. 4001 ID: 28e84c
Some questions:

How do you massproduce >>3876 if you can make no more than grams per batch? If it was so popular, somehow someone found a way to do it safely.

If I use rifle primers as a primary, what secondary would be best to set off mass-producible bulk explosives?

Could >>3885 with slightly less gelling agent be possible to flow either by gravity or pump through pipes, crevices and cracks? For example, have a device similar to a flamethrower, minus the ignition, to fill a target with liquid high explosive?
What would happen if it were to be mixed with napalm?

These are giving me loud warning sirens as to their safety...
>> No. 4002 ID: 5b9651
File 136958716147.png - (152.06KB , 1280x800 , PBX Explosives.png )

>How do you massproduce >>3876

If using full on cooling equipment you could probably make the stuff fairly safely in up to 10 gram batches. In a turn of the century fulminate factory you'd have a long ass table following the wall with an OPERATOR sitting every ten feet with their apparatus, making small batches one after the other. Each one also had an exit door nearby and a button next to them. If someones reaction started to go overload, they'd hit the bell (sounding an alarm) and everyone gets up and GTFOs through their respective exits. KaBoom.

>If I use rifle primers as a primary, what secondary would be best to set off mass-producible bulk explosives?

You need something sensitive. Styphnate is a weaksauce primary. In fact quite a few books on primary explosive chemistry say that it doesn't work at all due to its high metal content (~47%), while other say that it doesn't work reliably enough. You'd need to do some empirical testing, but my best guess would be to make a compound blasting cap that went: Fuse > pellet of pressed styphnate > loose ETN > pellet of pressed ETN. Loose ETN is much more sensitive than pressed, and could amplify the explosion of the styphnate enough to detonate the pressed ETN secondary. I don't think my earlier idea with the Aluminum foil would be reliable, the more and more I chew on it.

>Could >>3885 with slightly less gelling agent be possible to flow either by gravity or pump through pipes, crevices and cracks?

Very easily. In fact, the Picatinny Arsenal came up with something called PLX. It was a liquid explosive consisting entirely of nitromethane and about 4% diethylene triamine. The idea with it was to SPRAY it over minefields from the air and then detonate the settled liquid it to clear all the mines. The stuff would soak into the ground and make the DIRT explosive, like dynamite, until it dried out. Apparently it worked.

>For example, have a device similar to a flamethrower, minus the ignition, to fill a target with liquid high explosive?

Yes, easily. The problem would be detonating it. You'd be better off with using straight gasoline and trying to ignite the vapor cloud, really. Although the idea of hosing someone down, turning their very CLOTHING into dynamite, and then shooting at them with explosive-tipped bullets is incredibly lulzy.

>What would happen if it were to be mixed with napalm?

Very expensive napalm that might not burn at all.

>These are giving me loud warning sirens as to their safety...

Its how the pro's did it. Though they did move away to automated machines as soon as technology allowed. The PBX method is actually quite safe. If I was crushing crystals with a rolling pin though, you can bet your ass I'd wet them with ice cold water first. That's just me.
>> No. 4003 ID: 28e84c
>turning their very CLOTHING into dynamite
wasnt really talking about people, more like foundations and support structures. Getting the explosive deep inside is going to be more effective than taping a demo charge around or on top of something.

Or as a method of delivery to somewhere you cant go in person. Let it seep down to whatever you intend to demolish.
>> No. 4006 ID: 038051
You know, that makes me think this thread deserves a section on FAE/thermobarics. Or maybe another thread entirely, depending on what the Encyclopedia Acidia has on the subject.

He uses it to foster discussion on the internet, because this shit is fucking fascinating. That's the beautiful part about living in a free country -- he doesn't _need_ any other reason. Hell, he doesn't even need that one.
>> No. 4007 ID: 5b9651


Still researching that one. I probably have enough to START a thread, though I'd need quite a bit more to flesh one out. There is much less information in the public domain about them due to the war.

And I may have hit on something new with nitromethane gels.

Everyone should know that NM is a pretty darned good solvent. What I DIDN'T know until the other day is that it is an incredibly good solvent for picric acid. Turns out you can actually dissolve nearly four times the volume of TNP in nitromethane at room temperature.

If you made a combination like 75:19:5:1 of NM, TNP, Fumed Silica, and a nonammonium sensitizer (ammonium hydroxide would react with the TNP and make ammonium picrate) like DETA or maybe even hexamine, respectively, you would end up with a supercharged picric acid gel with VERY HIGH BRISANCE.

The downside is that you now have to coat the inside of your munitions to prevent picrate salts from forming, but the performance just might be worth it.

Relevant patent here:

>> No. 4044 ID: 6f0279
5 star thread, should look to get this a sticky. I was looking at the 5400-13 form and was wondering several things:\

would you have to pay licensing fees on both manufacturing and using explosives?

how would you mark down the interstate commerce question regarding ordering component materials online?

how does a hobbyist have hours of operation?

Would love to hear from someone about details on the form and anything else one who plans on doing this should know. I am defiantly interested in doing this once I am established with my own private residence where I can pursue this
>> No. 4112 ID: 98ca8f
>Implying Acid Man's threads could ever leave page 0

Hope this PRISM shit hasn't spooked you. I was taking a look at some of those "anarchist cookbook" type guides you mentioned and was wondering if you're willing to write up a critique on the pitfalls of such guides; what the guides leave out, where the "science" fails and so on. Could be a nice way to dissuade people from turning into your aforementioned teenage niggerbombers.

Bad Ideas over here: http://textfiles.com/anarchy
>> No. 4114 ID: 070ceb
I'm one of those guys who halfassed believed ("yeah, probably, but I'm not gonna wear tinfoil over it yet" type) that this has been going on since the early 90s at least. The confirmation was just a little gutcheck.

I might do a small critique, but the biggest problem is they either use reactions that don't really work, or they describe things in way too general terms ("place the beaker in the ice bath and chill" - TO WHAT TEMPERATURE, RETARDS?!) to not warning you about the side effects of the reactions ("add the toluene drop by drop to the cold acid (HOW COLD?!) and stir" - BY THE WAY, THE NITROGEN DIOXIDE GAS GIVEN OFF WILL KILL YOU IN A SINGLE WHIFF LOL!)
>> No. 4667 ID: afafb0
On thermite:

>> No. 4955 ID: 604f11
File 138176908281.png - (376.61KB , 1296x2870 , 1381767151389.png )
bump for recent content find.

AM, if you see this please weigh in.
>> No. 5122 ID: 93d5d4
bump for more
>> No. 5140 ID: 5b9651
I've actually elected not to share, for the time being, the materials I've accumulated on biochem warfare.

Explosives and chemistry are one thing. WMDs are something else entirely.
>> No. 5159 ID: 970cf5
Organophosphates scare the shit out of me, and the more i read about them the more I develop an intense respect and fear of them.

Bang makers and bodily damage i can comprehend, it's a mechanical action. but nerve agents sober me to the core.
>> No. 5163 ID: b5332d

Try this at home kids, you'll most certainly not die a horrible lingering death!
>> No. 5179 ID: f57e28

>welcome to the Acid Man explosives thread!
>I've actually elected not to share.

really now?
>> No. 5195 ID: 88779f
bump for more
>> No. 5218 ID: aa8d5d
bump i dont want to see this thread die
>> No. 5229 ID: f73099
>Shall not be infringed
>> No. 5230 ID: 29a738
>Shall get buttfucked. - Article 69 of the FBI's operational procedures book.
Still, something related:

Things are probably worse in our times given the Snowden leaks, but that might just be me feeling pessimistic.
>> No. 5235 ID: 0139cf

Case Dropped
>> No. 5426 ID: 0139cf

case bumped
>> No. 5441 ID: da0c38
File 13895593122.png - (114.46KB , 800x163 , sky_logo.png )
Doing g00gle searches for s&g's

International Detonation Symposium
brings up some cool stuff .. of which this is a neat one.

>> No. 5615 ID: 0139cf
whats your opinion?

>> No. 5633 ID: 5d922e

Mostly bullshit.

The dead giveaway? They didn't list the concentration of Nitric Acid to be used. You can make small amounts of RDX with nitric acid and hexamine in theory, but the nitric acid has to be very nearly to completely anhydrous. Something that borders the impossible in a small laboratory. Even the best lab grade bottled stuff is rarely better than 99% concentrated because nitric acid is slightly hygroscopic.
>> No. 5652 ID: f57e28
Just for my general want and not need to know.

whats the top 5 safest explosives + explosive yield?
>> No. 5654 ID: f3f73e
problem is the safe explosives require rather elaborate synthesis, the easily synthesized are less stable.
>> No. 5670 ID: 1ec821
Oh man this brings back memories, I spent the 05's of my teenage years reading up on totse, roguesci, sciencemadness, I never got past TNP because my parents made me chuck everything out, but I remember doing some pretty fun AP dets.

I vaguely recall the 'easiest' way to make it from an amateur perspective was to distil nitric acid then add something to it and blow dried air through it to remove any water, you had red fuming and white fuming nitric acid and both could be used but the yield was shit for the effort either way, I think using hexamine dinitrate instead of straight hexamine upped the yield a bit too.
>> No. 5671 ID: 5d922e
>using hexamine dinitrate instead of straight hexamine upped the yield a bit too.

If you start with HDN and nitrate it with White Fumic Nitric Acid and Oleum, you can make something called "keto RDX" pretty effectively. Decent yield and actually more powerful than straight RDX. Expensive fucking components though.
>> No. 5676 ID: 4a1784
I've been browsing this thread and I have to say thanks Acid Man. I need to do a lot more research before I'd feel prepared to start working with explosives, but this looks like a good place to start, and it is fairly in-depth. Keep doing the god's work.
>> No. 5722 ID: 4a1784
Generally speaking, what are the chances for getting in trouble for buying the ingredients for explosives together or in a short period of time?
>> No. 5725 ID: 8275a5
depends on how easy you make it to trace. some precursors are most definitely being monitored.
>> No. 5727 ID: 4a1784
I'm trying to figure out how fucked my friend is. He hasn't gotten his license yet, but he got impatient and bought the precursors for Acid Man's "Ideal explosive" in one day off the web.
I don't think he plans to make anything before he gets licensed.
>> No. 5728 ID: ef6ae2
File 139511057421.png - (3.93KB , 192x220 , 1394940639671.png )
Depends specifically what the precursors are, but pretty much 0. Unless you're buying fucking giant quanitities (like truck bomb size) no one gives a shit.

Source: Been doing it the better part of a decade now.
>> No. 5756 ID: afafb0
File HowToBuildFlash-stunGrenades-Dmitrieff-DesertPubli.pdf - (1.11MB )
On flash bang grenades, any opinion on this book?
>> No. 5759 ID: 6caf1d
So I've been having minor problems with this. 2 parts doesn't seem to be enough of fumed silica and when I let my final solution sit, any excess liquid gains a red hue after half a day. Am I just having mechanical faux pas?
>> No. 5760 ID: 8808ec
6 parts fumed silica, rather.
>> No. 5781 ID: 5adb5b

I present to you the luckiest old lady in existence.
>> No. 5818 ID: 5b9651

The reddish hue is possibly a suspension of the nitromethanalate salt in the leftover water from the ammonium hydroxide. That would be my educated guess.

What's the consistency of the mixture at 6parts fumed silica? Still mostly liquid or is it thickening at all?

And are you sure you're measuring units by weight, and not by volume? (I have to ask, its a basic mistake tons of people make)
>> No. 5820 ID: 5b9651
You may also try increasing the percentage of the silica to 7% by weight, though no more than that should be required.

The TYPE of silica you're using may be a factor also. The China Lake literature on NM based explosive gels specified Cab-O-sil TS-720 fumed silica for their formulations. There may be differences in particle size and absorption area from one brand selection to the next.

Alternatively, just stir the shit together and let it sit for a while so the silica can soak, then try stirring it real hard. You're in the experimental phase now, and the stuff is safe (though flammable. Treat it like you would gasoline).
>> No. 5829 ID: e9ac3e

So it seems I purchased aerosil 202. The mixture does become a viscous blob, but like I said I just use more, so I may purchase TS720. Think I'll try to test this first though. Thanks for the response, btw.
>> No. 5830 ID: e9ac3e

Shit man, so aerosil 202 is treated with a polydimethylsiloxane, and it's hydrophobic... no wonder. Too bad it wasn't labeled on the site.
>> No. 5831 ID: e9ac3e

Jk so is TS720 eh
>> No. 5923 ID: e81ba0
Just for the record, I'm very much a beginner chemist.
I have an idea: What about an "acid bomb" that uses some sort of nitrohalogen in its chemical structure? Like if there were nitros with the oxygens replaced with fluorine, and made into something like "nitronitrfmethane" or whatever you would call it, with the formula O2NCH2NF2. Upon going bang it would produce HF(?) to cause further fuckery.
Do any such chemicals exist? I would assume that the fluorobombs and possibly the chlorobombs too would be particularly unstable around metals.
>> No. 5980 ID: 5b9651
File 140010122670.jpg - (9.17KB , 267x400 , S15_P.jpg )
Minor contribution:

Rather than the 50% ammonium hydroxide solution, nitromethane can also be sensitized by addition of either organic amines (possibly even hexamine, though I can't confirm this yet) or also these little guys.


As specified in this patent and others:


The tl;dr is that the glass microspheres "crush" under the force of the initial blasting cap shockwave and function like microscopic shaped charges which amplify the explosive effect and help the shock propagate. They're going to reduce density somewhat, but you only need about 2-5% by weight of microspheres.

This would also have the advantage of eliminating the residual water that may be giving your formula some problems.
>> No. 6033 ID: ea79b1
File 140082064844.jpg - (12.43KB , 303x302 , woah.jpg )
So... you call yourself Acid Man for a *reason.*


/capped for posterity
>> No. 6787 ID: cbf3af
No way we're losing this one. Bumpage!
>> No. 6793 ID: 0dcdc8
File 141816230634.jpg - (87.79KB , 631x252 , home-header-fortune100.jpg )
In all seriousness why is this not either archived or pinned?

I use this thread for research material.
>> No. 6795 ID: 93d5d4
I PDF'D this thread three times already per update of course
>> No. 6796 ID: b109a5
I'd like to request an FAE thread. That'd be very interesting.
>> No. 6809 ID: 19d17e
Hi Acid Man I have a couple of questions first can you teach me about hydrazine please? Second from what you've written a lot of these chemicals will explode just because the day ends in a "Y" has anything like that happened to you?
>> No. 7043 ID: 190dd4
Hey guys

I'm a little late to the party. Who has the files Acid uploaded to /z/ (the explosives and explosives-related thread I'd imagine was where they were) referenced in this thread? Or a backup of the entire thread on /z/ would be cool.

Also what about that shaped charge thread?
>> No. 7080 ID: f77a39
bump 8chn /k/ here. good shit. learning alot
>> No. 7081 ID: f77a39
can anyone repost the dead .pdfs?
>> No. 7082 ID: f77a39
HOLY FUCK! electrical engineer here. my mind is exploding. its so simple yet makes so much sense
>> No. 7083 ID: bdc075
damnit acid man, I'd have loved to have read a thread of yours about biological / chemical weapons.

I wish we could have that thread, but without the whole .... you gunna get vanned thing.
>> No. 7103 ID: cae8b0
Acid, you ever pop on IRC anymore? I was shooting the shit with some grunts from our local combat engineer unit (potentially joining them in a year), had some interesting discussions regarding IEDs. My experience was from employing them as OPFOR/trying not to get blown up by OPFOR - theirs was "disarming" them with det cord or other explosives, but the actual explosives and detonators were essentially a mystery to us. Wanted to pick your brain about some things.
>> No. 7105 ID: 5b9651

I VERY rarely get on IRC, but if you want to meet up and chat then sure.
>> No. 7107 ID: cae8b0

Yeah, that'd be awesome, I'm EST but free monday anyways, let me know when you're likely to be on, I'll keep the client idling.
>> No. 7108 ID: cbf3af

Late evenings mostly.
>> No. 7109 ID: cae8b0
Cool, I take it you're more likely on the 8chan irc eh?
>> No. 7110 ID: cbf3af

No, only /k/ normally.
>> No. 7112 ID: adfbaa
Thank god, I thought you were vanned. "Mind explaining all these books on explosives, insurgency and all this Rustle art work?"
>> No. 7113 ID: cbf3af
File 142933244225.jpg - (218.04KB , 1200x892 , 1425185610532.jpg )

I'm starting a Militia EOD unit composed entirely of cute lolis?

Anime of that when?

Nah, but I've been incredibly busy lately. Work has been brutal, and I ended up becoming the HMFIC of 8chan's main GamerGate hub, the third biggest board on the site. On top of that #GG has had nearly non-stop happenings since, so that eats a ton of time and energy.

Also I'm leaving my job to take up a slot as a regional manager for a large chain of gun stores in May. Its 40 hours a week instead of 60+, for the same take-home pay, and I get full benefits and a 20% commission, plus a company car for business trips! Getting prepped for that eats a lot of my time too.
>> No. 7114 ID: adfbaa
>new job

Fantastic! That's good to hear, you were busting your ass for little pay and no appreciation. It's nice to see something working out.

Also, I'm so on board for a cute loli EOD unit. That'd make an awesome anime.
>> No. 7119 ID: 360825
I'd likely watch it.
>> No. 7121 ID: 12fd04

I also would watch that anime.

Also, congrats on the new job.
>> No. 7124 ID: cae8b0
Aye, gratz on the better job man, I'm glad to hear you're going to be fucked with less.

I just had some questions about cheddite since something like it came up in a discussion I was having with some combat engineers up here (Canada). I had ideas on how it could be used by opfor/infantry as a field expediant explosive, wanted to know more about how fragile/sensitive it is and how hard it would be to set off... Also what it looked like and potential ways of defeating it. I blew up and was blown up by notional-ieds(aka co2 and talc powder) more than I cared for when I was in, and shit like this intrigues me, especially if it can be used to help educate grunts.
>> No. 7125 ID: 5b9651

I'd be happy to answer but you've never been in IRC when I popped in, lol.

I know a bit about Cheddite. Fun stuff with a ton of history to it.
>> No. 7126 ID: cae8b0

Yeah I got fucking destroyed by work myself, 6 day weeks from now until....sometime in the summer, when jobs start getting finished or we finally hire more people. Glad I booked this weekend for a cottage trip...so I also wont be around. I'll try and be on late all next week.
>> No. 7153 ID: add633
File 143127547931.jpg - (80.72KB , 358x524 , imhv3.jpg )
What is your take on TM 31-210 ?

Is it a viable source book, and the information therein as safe (when made according to procedure) as the authors claim?

Reviews would be greatly appreciated
>> No. 7157 ID: 0dcdc8
>> No. 7202 ID: f8a67c
I have it for casual reading. It is useful for getting the general synthesis down, but I would never use it. It's way too inaccurate to trust. Measuring solids out by volume. 'nuff said.
>> No. 7225 ID: aa6d56
Hate to ask my question so late, but let's say I actually could get some hydrazine.

How exactly would you convert it to sodium azide?

Also, unrelated, but I've heard that Lead Azide is actually very sensitive to physical shocks that also generate friction (eg, leave it went on a tightly wound piece of string, and by the time it's done drying, pulling the string could set off the azide.) Is this true?
>> No. 7232 ID: f8a67c
Hydrazine Sulfate isn't too hard to make. There have been several topics on Science madness on it. The main problem is the low yield. Converting the Hydrazine Sulfate to Hydrazine hydrate (and purifying it) is a bit more difficult and requires a silver flask if i recall Correctly.

I second this, just for the science behind it. Conversion of Hydrazine hydrate to Sodium Azide.
>> No. 7234 ID: f96448
Hey Acid Man, I'm assuming you already know, but you can order the acetic anhydride from S-A in useful amounts, even by the kg, for relatively cheap (Under $100 a kg, which for RDX I'd say is pretty good), or is there a reason you can't go that route even with an explosives license?

>> No. 7240 ID: 67299a
>, acetic anhydride is listed as a U.S. DEA List II precursor,

you gonna get raped.
>> No. 7419 ID: 269349
What do you think about silver acetylide as a primary explosive? Sudden ded like organic peroxides or safer?
>> No. 7420 ID: 2b2389
Wow, is it really possible for an individual to obtain a license for explosives? Just some swingin' dick who isn't involved with explosives on a professional basis, but just wants to clear tree stumps on his back 40?

I wonder, how bad is the federal anal probing you have to go through? I assume your name gets added to several government lists, but are there any day-to-day effects, like profiling by LEOs or increased chance of IRS audits or some other shit?
>> No. 7439 ID: e1463b
yes, if you meet the requirements
>> No. 7457 ID: 8af38a
I got a good quality scan of this book at my uni library this weekend: http://www.abebooks.com/Propellants-explosives-Chemical-technology-review-James/12123708105/bd

Going to be cleaning it up and putting it online this weekend, it has a lot of detailed processes for actually making explosives.
>> No. 7458 ID: 8af38a

Here you go:

>> No. 7459 ID: 8af38a

Note there are some blurry pages I may have to go back and rescan some pages. Good news is most of the info in the book is from patents and includes the patent numbers if you need to look up anything that isn't showing up clearly in the scan.
>> No. 7460 ID: 62e17c
Can I haz this? plz

You know but don't have, I have but don't know, let me learn.
>> No. 7461 ID: 2f01dc
>> No. 7463 ID: 13b694
Great, thanks. This is going to help us a lot. And also, I'm using the modified Griess test to spot the PETN on the field, but I'm using KOH/Ethanol/Acetone solution to doit, but it is very volatile, it's hard to hydrolize the PETN. Is there a way to make this gel like or something in order to prevent this and make a better contact with the area in analsis? Or better yet, Is there another way to hydrolize the PETN on the field with another chemical?
>> No. 7464 ID: 13b694
Just to let you know, I'm working on a mining company, and we want to be sure that there are not traces of explosives after spillages or in our equipment when it needs to be repaired. Besides, the company is going to buy an HPLC equipment, so we need to be ready we it arrives. Thanks for the ebay tip.
>> No. 7465 ID: 2f01dc
I've got a program to Hopefully snipe the google books preview, but I don't think it's going to work.

Especially for buying it, for a company, just look around till you find a price you're willing to pay.
>> No. 7468 ID: eb5fad
  Lead(II) Azide synthesis video
>> No. 7469 ID: eb5fad
My question is how do detonators in artillery/tank and missiles actually work? I can't figure out how the shock from launching these doesn't set them off.
>> No. 7470 ID: 2f01dc
It depends on the fuse and the missile and the application. Look on dtic.mil and fuse technologies. All of them have multiple safety interlocks that can only be released via firing.

Some require rotations to unlock a balls, some require wind speed to unscrew a firing pin, some have timed interlocks (sorta kinda somewhat) and there's some designs that need the g force to activate a mercury switch to activate it so long as the projo is accellerating.
>> No. 7471 ID: 2f01dc
It depends on the fuse and the missile and the application. Look on dtic.mil and fuse technologies. All of them have multiple safety interlocks that can only be released via firing.

Some require rotations to unlock a balls, some require wind speed to unscrew a firing pin, some have timed interlocks (sorta kinda somewhat) and there's some designs that need the g force to activate a mercury switch to activate it so long as the projo is accellerating.
>> No. 7513 ID: 0dcdc8
File 145114015659.jpg - (109.60KB , 850x543 , pdj2828129.jpg )
Science....primarily mechanical engineering.
>> No. 7521 ID: d0cecd
A common WWI and early WWII one is that the firing pin is held forward near the primer by some sort of fixing agent, can't move forward or back
When the shell is fired the inertia makes the pin snap free of the fixing agent and move back into a "cocked" position
Then when the shell hits something, the inertia slams the pin forward to hit the primer

There's many different ways to do it, various locking bolts and safety lugs, germans like ball-bearing safeties for example
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