-  [WT]  [Home] [Manage]

Name
Email
Subject   (new thread)
Message
File
File URL
Embed   Help
Password  (for post and file deletion)
  • Supported file types are: GIF, JPG, PNG, WEBM
  • Maximum file size allowed is 5120 KB.
  • Images greater than 300x300 pixels will be thumbnailed.
  • Currently 660 unique user posts.

  • Blotter updated: 2016-01-30 Show/Hide Show All

Server Moneys Needed!

No. 105163 ID: db411e hide watch quickreply [Reply]
  Gladiformers


No. 104976 ID: 1aea9c hide watch expand quickreply [Reply]
  Atomic Annie is the biggest baddest piece of artillery the US Military ever deployed – 84 feet long, 84 tons, and with a 280mm caliber to the cannon. Oh, and it’s nuclear.

Officially known as the M65 Atomic Cannon, Annie was fired just once for testing.

Annie launched her almost 5-foot-long, 850 pound nuclear artillery shell. Nine seconds later, and just over seven miles away, “the shell that could wipe out an enemy division exploded on target with a roaring violence equal to 15,000 tons of TNT,” launching a massive mushroom cloud that could be seen for miles. The “milestone in military history and in the advancement of nuclear weaponry” erupted in a “churning mass of heat and flame that surrounded the core of the atomic fireball.” Flares launched from the ground were used to show just how high the cloud went up into the air.

And it was all caught on video.

Annie and the other 19 M65 Atomic Cannons spent more than a decade as the front line deterrent against a Soviet invasion, with many experts crediting the nuclear cannon as being the deciding factor that stopped the Soviets from storming across the borders in overwhelming numbers.After serving in that role for more than a decade, they were replaced by more advanced tactical nuclear missiles.

You can still see the gargantuan 85 weapon with its 10-foot-long barrel at the Fort Sill army base in Lawton, Oklahoma. A plaque attached to a commemorative rock alongside the 280MM motorized gun and its transporters details the rise of “Atomic Annie.”

The gun was developed in the 1950s by the American government over a period of eight years, with a prototype even making its way into the procession of President Eisenhower’s inauguration. On May 25, 1953, at 8:31 am, over 3,000 military spectators watched from 5,000 yards away as the world’s first atomic artillery round was shot across the desert rock of the Nevada Test Site.

After the successful test, 20 of the atomic cannons were produced, each at a cost of $800,000 dollars. They were sent to Europe and Korea, but never saw action.
Message too long. Click here to view the full text.
20 posts and 6 images omitted. Click Reply to view.
>> No. 105093 ID: 8be205
>>105091
>That said, critical mass is critical mass, so the thing would still weigh a fuckload. But yes, a "briefcase bomb" is quite possible.

Hypothetically...

All you need is 4-5 grams each deuterium and tritium, and a thick-enough walled hollow plutonium sphere and a two lens PETN or faster velocity high explosive in the lenses and then you've got a suitcase bomb. You could certainly make one the size of rolling carryon luggage. The cost to develop it without needing the cryogenically cooled hydrogen isotopes and thin enough boron shielding in the casing around the plutonium pit would make it cost prohibitive to all but actor states but it's easily doable.

It's just a MADM that could use lighter weight assembly materials as mush as possible because it doesn't need to be air-drop delivered but "hand" delivered in a car or truck or wheeled in on a dolly
>> No. 105095 ID: 50cd85
>>105082

A co-worker dealt with these. They were absurd contrivances, per his descriptions.

He has a tailfin assembly as an oversized ashtray in the shop I helped build for him.
>> No. 105101 ID: d8acd0
File 146157738273.jpg - (401.67KB , 1800x1280 , US Convair B-36 Peacemaker range 3,850 miles with .jpg )
105101
The concept that a few gimmicks like nuclear artillery keeping the Soviets from steamrolling through Western Europe seems minuscule compared to the serious threats of the main battlefield nuclear weapons like rockets, missiles and bombers as well as the strategic nuclear forces that would probably get called in to drop the big city-killers in order to affect the war (stop the fighting, retaliate against tactical nuclear weapons being used, or escalate to total nuclear war).

Besides, the Soviets, after acquiring so much territory after WW2 and later controlling China (until their relationship soured in the 1960s), they were content to foment, support and supply communist revolutions around the world rather than direct military confrontation with the Western and capitalist powers.

- US Convair B-36 "Peacemaker", a United States Air Force (USAF) strategic bomber operated from 1949 to 1959.
The B-36 was the largest mass-produced piston engine aircraft ever made. It had the longest wingspan of any combat aircraft ever built, at 230 ft (70.1 m). The B-36 was the first bomber capable of delivering any of the nuclear weapons in the U.S. arsenal from inside its four bomb bays without aircraft modifications. With a range of 10,000 mi (16,000 km) and a maximum payload of 87,200 lb (39,600 kg), the B-36 was the world's first manned bomber with an unrefueled intercontinental range. The B-36 was the primary nuclear weapons delivery vehicle of the Strategic Air Command (SAC) until it was replaced by the jet powered Boeing B-52 Stratofortress (which first became operational in 1955). The B-36 set the standard for range and payload for subsequent U.S. intercontinental bombers. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Convair_B-36_Peacemaker
>> No. 105160 ID: 94b3dd
File 146198092655.jpg - (790.66KB , 2840x1850 , US 203mm M110 nuclear howitzers W79 neutron bomb R.jpg )
105160
Although the use of small 1 kiloton neutron bombs (enhanced radiation bombs) were planned to be used by 8-inch (203mm) and 6-inch (155mm) artillery to blunt Soviet attacks into NATO. The idea was to use small nukes that produce a lot of radiation but little blast damage on the territory of West Germany to stop an enemy advance. The West Germans balked that they would get hammered with nukes in order to save them from a conventional attack.

- U.S. Army M110 howitzers in a 1984 REFORGER staging area before transport. Variants of this "dual capable" nuclear artillery howitzer would launch the W79 neutron bomb.
>> No. 105161 ID: 94b3dd
File 146198116495.jpg - (35.69KB , 640x354 , US nuke 203mm (8-inch) W33 nuclear artillery shell.jpg )
105161
An American eight-inch W33 nuclear artillery shell. This warhead had a number of different yield options (e.g., five kilotons). It could be fired from any standard eight-inch (203mm) howitzer (e.g., the M110 or M115)


No. 105077 ID: ae87b5 hide watch quickreply [Reply]
  This guy's got jokes.

http://www.defense.gov/About-DoD/Biographies/Biography-View/Article/614392/general-mark-a-milley
>> No. 105134 ID: c05e32
File 146180351198.jpg - (157.06KB , 800x576 , eareckson_shemya-island.jpg )
105134
>>105077
Even though it was in jest, you know that young man pooped a little bit.
>> No. 105151 ID: edd03a
>>105134

An MG did that to me one time, and it wasn't in jest.

I took a long hike and contemplated my future that afternoon.
>> No. 105152 ID: 82a3e8
Ill admit, I had a sensible chuckle.

Especially the "Ok, I got 4 stars, he has two, this kid has none. You got the day off" lol
>> No. 105157 ID: f49edb
  This speech keeps generating more lols.

He said the wars of the future would be fought against little green men. Conspiracy nuts go wild.
>> No. 105158 ID: 82a3e8
>>105157
I was talking about that with my friend.

I laughed hysterically imagining a government censor in the back ground just absolutely panicking.


File 146186731286.jpg - (27.13KB , 236x371 , e5153530306b3abb821396235b167931.jpg )
105142 No. 105142 ID: 6663b1 hide watch quickreply [Reply]
Why does this shit seem to happen like twice a week? Are two year olds really more dangerous than niggers? Its seems pretty unlikely that an accident with such ridiculously long odds would randomly occur so often, I bet at least half of these are rigged
http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation-now/2016/04/27/driver-fatally-shot-child-back-seat/83584372/
MILWAUKEE — One day after Patrice Price was accidentally shot to death by her 2-year-old son while driving, her friends and family gathered to remember her as a woman who loved her children.

"She loved shopping, she loved dancing, she loved her kids. She loved looking fabulous," said her sister Cherneice Stewart.

The 26-year-old Milwaukee woman was driving her boyfriend's car when a gun slid out from under the driver's seat and her son picked it up and fired it from the backseat. The bullet went through the driver's seat and hit Price in the back about 10:30 a.m. Tuesday.

Adding to the tragedy was the fact Price had borrowed a car from her boyfriend, a security guard, because hers had been stolen four days earlier. When her car was stolen, the car seats for her sons — the 2-year-old and a 1-year-old — were also stolen, said Stewart.

Deputies found her boyfriend's security guard gun belt on the floor of the front passenger seat, and a .40-caliber gun on the floor of the back seat behind the driver's seat, according to the Milwaukee County Sheriff's Office.


USA TODAY
Mom accidentally shot by gang of 4-year-olds with MAC-11s & 30 round clips
Message too long. Click here to view the full text.
>> No. 105148 ID: fdde33
File 146190736632.jpg - (35.18KB , 338x342 , 1434353626755.jpg )
105148
>> No. 105149 ID: 82a3e8
Kids die in 5 gallon buckets and bath tubs.

Safe to assume one will get lucky and off their parent/parents.


File 146128067218.jpg - (91.64KB , 698x400 , AAEAAQAAAAAAAARfAAAAJGRmOWY3NzQ5LWJkN2ItNDI1Zi1hYm.jpg )
105047 No. 105047 ID: ae87b5 hide watch expand quickreply [Reply]
Who wants to OPERATE?

https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/now-hiring-doe-nuclear-materials-couriers-curtis-johnson

https://www.usajobs.gov/GetJob/ViewDetails/430239900

As a Nuclear Materials Courier, you

Serve as a member of a highly specialized armed protective force that is responsible for the safe and secure transportation of classified and/or hazardous materials including nuclear weapons, components, test assemblies, and strategic quantities of weapons-grade special nuclear materials. This involves the operation of Government-owned motor vehicles, including tractor-trailers.

Integrate many processes and methods in the fields of security; health and safety; emergency management; and law enforcement, including tactical operations to respond to a multitude of possible natural and/or man-made threats to the safety and security of sensitive, dangerous, and extremely valuable cargo.

Participate in security planning prior to trip departures; assess multiple issues and factors related to shipment security during convoy operations; coordinate with other Federal, state or local law enforcement agencies and first responders concerning the investigation of potential criminal or terrorist acts or activities that could be considered a threat to the mission.Will be armed to provide the force necessary, up to and including the use of deadly force, to prevent theft, sabotage or takeover by unauthorized persons or groups.

Respond quickly and effectively to environmental, resource, and safety and security issues that may arise unexpectedly in the course of mission operations.
Message too long. Click here to view the full text.
21 posts and 7 images omitted. Click Reply to view.
>> No. 105118 ID: d8bff7
Being a government tool and tax leech is exactly the opposite of being OPERATOR. Real OPERATORS have the freedoms and are nobody's bitch.

>>105096
These people drink because they've essentially given up on life.
They've exchanged any possibility of success in life for a guaranteed five figure paycheck, modest pension, cradle to grave health insurance, retiring on a budget, etc. A long, boring forgettable lifetime is assured for these folks, unless the tedium makes them drink themselves to death which it often does. They play act at OPERATOR to make themselves feel better, but they aren't fooling anyone not even themselves.
>> No. 105119 ID: ae87b5
>>105118

That sounds good and all but you really didn't think it through. What OPERATORs are you talking about that aren't state sponsored or initially state trained?
>> No. 105126 ID: eb6622
>>105119
If you got the same McArmy training that 10 million other cub scouts also got then you're not some sort of uniquely operating flower.
>> No. 105140 ID: 958e3e
  Sometimes drivers aren't so careful.
>> No. 105141 ID: 958e3e
>>105140
Why the fuck don't liveleak embeds ever work?
http://www.liveleak.com/view?i=002_1446585375


No. 105069 ID: 1aea9c hide watch expand quickreply [Reply]
  College Kids Say the Darndest Things: On Identity
6 posts and 1 image omitted. Click Reply to view.
>> No. 105079 ID: 90a126
File 146144736439.jpg - (86.61KB , 407x405 , 62947147.jpg )
105079
>>105078
>he is a republican

A surprising amount of younger Republicans, atleast from what I've seen, are pretty socially liberal. Now most aren't to the point of calling some white manlet to be a 6 foot something chinese woman who can't drive (he/she didn't say that but its implied) but are cool with gay rights and non-fucktarded tranny rights (because transmissions are people too no matter whats under the hood).

>What a sad world we live in where we cannot even have this as a discussion topic without people screaming at you out of anger.

HEY FUCK YOU YOU GODDAMN PIECE OF CUNT MONKEY BOLOGNA SHIT BALLS ASS CLOWN N-WORD JIM HOW DARE YOU DISCUSS A TOPIC I DISAGREE OR AGREE WITH SHIT!!!!!1!!!!! 1!!!!! !!!! !!!

Nah but seriously, yeah. People do take things WAY too personally and act like its personal attack just having a differing opinion. I mean I can kinda see anger of difference in opinions that effect ones rights, like anti-gun people wanting to take away our rights to have a consensual relationship with a firearm and anti-gayyers allowing two chicks that look like dudes to confuse your dick, but even minor shit seems to turn into a bunch of bullshit.

I know I'm not immune to that shit as I've demonstrated before so I can kinda see where it comes from sometimes. Still people just need to calm down about differences of opinion and if you don't agree with that then FUCK YOU!!!!!!!
>> No. 105084 ID: 072b94
Maybe people are just so afraid of the mentally ill that they are surrendering so they don't get bludgeoned and eaten by them?
>> No. 105090 ID: 7d1c98
This video is just the interviewer doing one giant strawman and changing the goalposts and a bunch of other stupid fallacies I can't be assed to remember the names of.

Point is, he starts with one topic, then illogically jumps to other completely irrelevant types of questioning just so he can try to look clever. It's like the video equivalent of those annoying as fuck webcomics where the author always 'wins'.
>> No. 105107 ID: 8be205
>>105090
oh, so it's randall munroe or the dude from dresden codak in "journalist" form.
>> No. 105139 ID: 9723b1
>>105090
>>105107
Butthurt.

His point is to prove what shitty 20-something college students are "fine with" in terms of reality denial, and how fucking terrified they are of offending someone by disagreeing.

Claiming that if someone simply says they're a woman, it actually makes them a woman is just one extremely destructive example.


File 145963132587.jpg - (266.30KB , 1600x1200 , Animals%2BFunny%2BActivities%2BPhoto%2BCollection%.jpg )
104796 No. 104796 ID: 7188a3 hide watch expand quickreply [Reply]
tl;dr what fun surprises would you fill a fake dog with?

I've always considered myself lucky that I'm a cat person and neither own nor have any immediate intention of owning a dog. One less thing the alphabet soup squad can wreck when they deliver their 5am no-knock. It's still piss in my cheerios when I hear them shooting some housepet, though, as if all that desert storm loadout they invariably kit up with is somehow dangerously vulnerable to dog bites, but I digress.

I then got the idea of having a fake dog (or something similar like a staked chain leading into an empty doghouse) as a decoy just for such an occasion. I just liked the humor of some mallninja explaining to his superiors how he dynamically ventilated a very threatening straw yorkie. Then it suddenly occurred to me how lolzy it would be if I swapped the straw for tannerite.

Unfortunately, that's highly illegal because tannerite can't be stored once it's mixed, but I like the idea. What other crap would you fill an ATF decoy with? I'm thinking hydrogen sulfide or maybe putrescine.
26 posts and 15 images omitted. Click Reply to view.
>> No. 104897 ID: 83d63c
File 146012778665.jpg - (178.17KB , 1681x1884 , US WW2 M1919 Browning _30 cal_ air-cooled machine-.jpg )
104897
>> No. 105046 ID: 79b400
If I ever became a police officer, would it be in bad taste to engrave the slide of my Glock with "The Dog Whisperer"?
>> No. 105051 ID: 7188a3
File 146129025093.jpg - (2.01MB , 2448x2448 , FullSizeRender-71.jpg )
105051
>>105046
Yes, but you should do it anyway. Bonus style points if done on a timberwolf frame.
>> No. 105129 ID: 5d583f
>>105046

Well, one cop killed a guy and he had "You're fucked" on his dust cover so.
>> No. 105130 ID: 264203
>>105129
How about "Cesar Milan?"


File 145875943429.jpg - (3.58MB , 4608x3456 , IMG_0084.jpg )
104584 No. 104584 ID: 86ccb5 hide watch expand quickreply [Reply]
My apologies if this is the incorrect board, it seemed to fit the best, or less out of place on other boards.

Do you guys buy precious metals as an investment? I have about 5 ounces, probably given to me from before I can remember and want to buy more and invest with it.

Near as I can tell, buying online will get the best price over brick/mortar stores because less overhead, silver bullion is fine for long term, but coins such as american eagles will hold silver value, plus a small premium over time.

I'm getting ready to make a purchase from JMbullion because of their prices and suggestions from calguns.

Anyone have any insight or recommendations before I buy $1600 in silver?
25 posts and 7 images omitted. Click Reply to view.
>> No. 104738 ID: 6a0fc5
DO A BARREL ROLL
>> No. 105053 ID: 1e7925
>>104584

bumping for fun and profit

but seriously

>Do you guys buy precious metals as an investment?

Sort of, as a very conservative investment. I do expect gold and silver to increase in value over time, how much more? no idea, but I expect it to go up. If it goes up more than stocks, great, if not, meh.

Stocks/bonds/real estate are still where its at. However...

stocks & bonds can become worthless, mind you. real estate, less likely unless it's in Detroit or gets something toxic spilled on it.

However gold and silver will always be worth something to someone, so you can always sell it for something.
Message too long. Click here to view the full text.
>> No. 105054 ID: 53e7c0
>>105053
Real estate is very volatile, much more so than people realize.
When I was a kid, my father was transferred almost like clockwork, every 2 years. (he was very good at what he did and was constantly sent out to head up a new operation; once it was stable, rinse and repeat, until he quit.)

We lived all over the country, and luckily always lived in new construction houses. My folks never made money on real estate, due to numerous factors... but mostly because: as your home appreciates in value, other homes in the area are appreciating, too; the prevailing home prices in the market, which have been incredibly volatile the last 20 or so years, especially so in the suburbs.

Additionally; owning a home is a huge investment, in more than just a mortgage. Owning a home will mean you'll face significant expenses maintaining it, making repairs, and perhaps remodeling it, just to keep from losing money.
And trends have changed quickly in the last 2 decades or so. For example, my folks moved into their current home in 1998. Their kitchen in particular and the rooms in general are woefully barren of electrical outlets by 2016 standards. But a lot has happened in ~20 years. At that time 56k internet was just then available that summer. Now it's normal for a family to have multiple computers, a laptop, and other devices like an Ipad, Kindle, etc. all in the same room.

Anyway, Nobel-prize-winning economist Robert Shiller is famous for his studies of the housing market, and his data suggests that housing prices have grown at a compound annual rate of just 0.3% during the past century (inflation-adjusted), while the S&P 500 has averaged roughly 6.5%.

Anyway, the moral of the story is: Compared to other investment vehicles, housing isn't really a good investment. Other vehicles can also be leveraged (in part in particular) if you desire, and many times without the exorbitant additional transaction costs/fees and time that comes with buying/selling real estate.

The only difference is that to be truthful, the average joe doesn't know how to trade derivatives or manage foreign exchange portfolios etc., so they will probably lose money. This is where houses can come in. They're good investments, for people who don't know how to invest in other investment vehicles because they require little education (don't need a masters in finance or years of experience trading) and little strategy (usually just buying & holding - sometimes renovating).

Message too long. Click here to view the full text.
>> No. 105055 ID: 490e84
>>105054
REIT provides 4% more return on investment that straight up doing it yourself.
>> No. 105061 ID: 53e7c0
>>105055
From 2008 to 2011, REITs faced challenges from both a slowing United States economy and the late-2000s financial crisis, which depressed share values by 40 to 70 percent in some cases.


No. 105048 ID: 4c3ae6 hide watch quickreply [Reply]
  Favorite roller-casters?
I used to live in San Jose, California and in the early '90s the mass transit guys finally completed the light rail that went right from my place to Marriott's Great America amusement park in Santa Clara. My friends and I would get drunk, get on the light rail and stagger into the park on early afternoons when the crowds have thinned out considerably and ride the roller-coasters until we got sick. One was called The Edge that resembled a gantry that brings astronauts to the nose cone of their rocket, but this took you up, positioned your cage outside of the tower and dropped you. If you placed a penny in your lap, you could see it tumble in the air in front of you during the freefall drop until the cage connected with the rails that were angled in a curve in front of the tower and you laid on your backs and the cage slowed down. After riding that six times or so in a row, I got sick as hell and ran to a garbage can (plastic lined 55-gallon oil can) to vomit. While loudly voiding myself, I heard a little girl say, "Mommy, what's that big man doing?" and the response from Mommy was, "Why he's puking his guts out, little lamb."

Zumanjaro Drop of Doom POV World's Tallest Drop Ride Six Flags Great Adventure https://youtu.be/N79JKDtK4hg
What: World's tallest and fastest drop ride
Height: 41.5 stories, 415 feet
Drop Speed: Up to 90 miles per hour
Lift Duration: 30 seconds
Drop Duration: Less than 10 seconds
Riders per Cycle: 24
Riders/Gondolas: Eight riders on three gondolas ascend simultaneously, but drop independently
Height Requirement: 48 inches
Location: Golden Kingdom, built on the face of Kingda Ka -- the world's tallest and fastest coaster
Theming: African, inspired by the Safari Off Road Adventure that transformed Six Flags Great Adventure into the world's largest theme park in 2013
Opening: July 2, 2014 press preview presented by Kia; July 3 preview for Season Pass Holders; July 4 grand opening -- the park's 40th anniversary (July 4, 1974)
Message too long. Click here to view the full text.
>> No. 105049 ID: 4c3ae6
  Top 5 Roller Coasters At Six Flags Great America 2K14 Edition
https://youtu.be/3_FlmEhVFg0
>> No. 105050 ID: 79b400
I've never been on one.
>> No. 105052 ID: 7188a3
  Went on my first coaster when I was but a wee middle-schoolboy. It was the Mamba at Worlds of Fun, which was the tallest, fastest, and longest coaster in the world when it was built. Of course, that was back in '98, so it's fairly pedestrian by today's standards. Still, a 205 foot drop at 75 mph with a 3.5g maximum isn't a bad ride. The coolest part is how the track spirals through its own supporting pillars. It's still my favorite, but mostly because I don't make it a habit to visit theme parks.

The best time I had was on a weekday during light drizzle. There was seriously nobody at the park, so I rode the thing maybe a half-dozen times back-to-back. Good times, those.

It was designed by Steve Okamoto, who went on to design the Steel Dragon 2000 in Kuwana, Japan. That coaster still holds the record for longest in the world.


File 146116329275.jpg - (56.61KB , 500x418 , f8f895b886473130b1bbe7e2cbe72b2f22a32d061d690db33d.jpg )
105032 No. 105032 ID: ad8094 hide watch expand quickreply [Reply]
Saw some good one off Chinese Buzzfeed like site figure I share

> Walking in the park with grandpa
> Spots a cute jogger
> Grandpa asks "You want to talk to her? You want her number"
> I blushed
> Then grandpa wonder off in the cute jogger's direction
> few mins later phone rings and a cute girl's voice on the other end
> Hi, I found your grandpa and we are waiting for you at the park's entrance
6 posts and 3 images omitted. Click Reply to view.
>> No. 105039 ID: 82a3e8
>>105038
Its true, I have (on more than one occasion) pull in like 10/10 18 year olds whose job is was to be hit on (bar wenches at ren fest and stuff).

Man was scary slick. Wish I was that slick lol.
>> No. 105040 ID: a19011
>>105038
your Grandad sounds savage.
>> No. 105043 ID: 7c90e8
>>105038
My granddad was a tailor.

I wish I had your granddad.
>> No. 105044 ID: 385f49
File 146127239825.jpg - (132.74KB , 382x492 , 89205_original.jpg )
105044
>>105036
Wikipedia article does not specify which Orlov it was, but I may deduce it was Alexei 'Chesmensky' Orlov, a hero of Turkish war and popular socialite - since his brother has already perished by the time it happened.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexei_Grigoryevich_Orlov
>> No. 105045 ID: ad8094
My granddad on my dad's side was in the air force during WWII anti-air department, they man the flak cannons, he told me he shot down 2 Japanese bomber with 1 shot before, what happen was one of the bomber was dropping the bomb and flak shot hit the bomb and detonate the bomb and blew up the plane and as it fall it crashed into another bomber.

Only OpChan can derail a thread and still be cool to read.


Delete post []
Password  
Report post
Reason  
[0] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14]